tourism in Pakistan Notes Geography Notes on Tourism 2059/02

Notes on Tourism 2059/02

tourism in Pakistan

Tourism Industry

Tourism is a phenomenon where by people move temporarily to places away from home, primarily for relaxation and tourism is a tertiary industry.

Why do people travel to Pakistan?

1.  For physical reasons such as to improve their health or participate in a sporting event.

2.  For cultural reasons such as being curious about foreign places, people or cultures.

3.  For personal reasons such as to visit friends and relatives.

4.  People also travel for prestige and status reasons.

5.  For educational or professional goals.

6.  For recreational purpose.

Factors  (Affect the tourism industry in Pakistan)

1.  Presence of tourist attractions.

2.  Level of security for the tourist.

3.  Availability of capital.

4.  Provision of infrastructure facilities.

5.  Management of tourist attractions.

6.  Marketing and publicity at International level.

7.  The feasibility of developing transport and communication.

8.  Government priorities.

International Tourists / Visitors

There are three main groups of International tourists / visitors.

aFor business

bVisiting families cFor recreation

(a)        The international business visitors mainly come to Pakistan from the European countries  for a number of reasons, which include:

i.         To attend trade delegations.

ii.         For educational activities e.g. some educational institutions have hired foreign staff e.g. Principal and teachers.

iii.        As staff of multinational companies such as oil companies, Foreign Banks e.g. Citibank, Standard Charted Bank.

iv.        As UNO officials who are working in a number of projects in Pakistan e.g. WHO (World Health Organization).

(b)       Many Pakistani’s work abroad mainly in K.S.A, Kuwait, U.A.E, UK and U.S.A. They are not tourist but when on holidays, they come to visit their families, friends in Pakistan almost every year. They stay with family members and not in hotels.

(c)       Foreign tourists who visit Pakistan only for: Recreational purposes

Historic Interests (Places) Museum

Religious Faith

Different culture to their own

Festivals (Basant)

Visiting Northern areas and beautiful lakes and gullies.

Main Sources of Visitors:

The UK has remained the main source of visitors. Other sources were India, Germany, Japan, Russia, China, Canada, Netherland, France, Sri Lanka, Australia, Saudi Arab, UAE, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Malaysia and Turkey.

Most of the visitors from overseas visited main cities like Karachi, Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Lahore. This is mainly due to the nature of these visits, which are dominated by Pakistani’s returning to visit friends and relatives.

Cultural Attractions in Pakistan:

Pakistan is famous for its cultural heritage, which may attract a number of domestic and foreign tourists, the ones who are interested in History, culture and Archaeological research. Cultural attractions which exist in Pakistan and which either have been or could be made available to tourists include:

Archaeological Sites: Moen-Jo-Daro



Historic and Religious Sites: Forts (Baltit), Lahore

Mosques (Badshahi Lahore, Mahabat in Peshawar)

Tombs (Chaukandi near Karachi, Makli near Thatta, Allam Iqbal and Ranjit Sings in Lahore) Sharines (Uch sharif)

Khyber Pass Shalimar Garden Kalash Valley Swat Valley.

Modern Buildings: Faisal Mosque,

Parliament Building, President House Minar-e-Pakistan Jinnah Mausoleum.

Natural Attractions  (In Northern Areas)

The northern areas of our country have many attractions which are the following. Mountains,

Snowcapped peaks, Fauna and Flora, Natural vegetations, Photography, Hiking,

Snow falling, Steep slopes, Polo matches,

River, Lakes and Glaciers,

Beautiful valleys like Hunza, Skardu, Swat and Kaghan.

Kaghan Valley

It is one of the most splendid tourist area in Pakistan and located in Himalaya, north east of Hazara District KPK. The valley is full of natural attractions which are as follows. Mountain and Mountains peaks

Snow capped peaks, Snow falling, Shogran,

Fishing in River Kunhar, e.g. Trout Fish, Lake Saiful Maluk,

Jeep riding, Glaciers, Waterfalls,

Forests / Orchards.

Other Attractions in Cities  (Historical Places and Monuments)

As such, there are many historical places and monuments exist in different cities, which attract the tourists, these are as follows:


Pakistan’s capital, planned city and located at the base of the Margalla Hills. President House, Parliament and Faisal Mosque

Rawal Lake and Dam

Shakar Parrian Daman-e-Koh Pakistan Monument Lok Varsa

Jasmine Garden

Chattar Park


Provincial Capital (Sindh) Sea Port

International Air Port

Clifton Beach

Hawkes Bay and Paradise point

The National Museum

The Mausoleum of the Quaid-e-Azam

Children Park.


Provincial Capital (Punjab)

Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosuqe

Data Darbar

Jehangir’s Tomb and Allama Iqbal Tomb

Minar-e-Pakistan, Museum

Shalimar Garden and other parks

Governor House

Wapda House

Punjab University old and new campus

Hotels (Pearl Continental, Services, Holiday Inn, Avary Hotel).


Provincial Capital (KPK) Khyber Pass

Bala Hissar Fort Mahabat Khan Mosque Peshawar Museum.


Provincial Capital (Balochistan) Bolan and Khojak Pass

Hill resort of Ziarat


Q.1.    Explain how local people can gain income from tourism in mountain areas. Ans.    Opening shops in village

Making / sale of crafts

Guides (on tracks / trails)

Named services e.g. hotels / resturants

Named transport services

Offering accomodation in own home

Construction of tourist facilities.

Q.2.    To what extent is it possible to increase tourism in Pakistan in the 21st century? Ans.     Possibilities

By providing good infrastructure, security and improved living conditions


Training for staff in tourism industry / education about accepting tourists

Maintenance / cleanliness of tourist attractions

Tourist attractions i.e. natural, modern and archeological sites

Stratefies for increasing tourism e.g. preventing deforestation in tourist areas, removing littering / rubbish.


Unstable political situation


Lack of security or fear of terrorism Accommodation below western standards Poor named infrastructure

High cost of developing tourist areas / facilities

Lack of government support / attention / interest.

Q.3.     Choose a province and name two tourist attractions within it.

Ans.    Punjab

Ancient history/archaeology – Taxila/ Harappa

Hillstations – Murree/Nathia Gali

Tombs/shrines -Allama Iqbal/Ranjit Singh/ Jahangir

Culture – Mughal architecture/ Shalimar Gardens/ Badshahi mosque, Lahore Fort/Rohtas Fort

buildings – Minar–e-Pakistan/Presidential palace/Parliament building/Faisal mosque

Other – Khewra salt mines.


Ancient history/archaeology – Mohenjo-Daro/ Bhambore/ Kot Deji

Tombs/shrines – Shahbaz Qalander (sufi)/ Muhammad Ali Jinnah/Mazar-e-Quaid./ Chaukundi/ Makli

Culture – Mughal architecture/Jamia Masjid/ Ranikot Fort/ Kafir-Qila Fort

Hillstations – Gorakh, Lakes – Keenjhar, Manchar.


Valleys – Kaghan/Kumrat/Swat/Kalam/Naran

Lakes – Saiful Muluk

Q.4.    Suggest two problems the tourist industry in Pakistan must overcome in order for

it to be more developed.

Ans.    Poor security/terrorism/political instability

Bad management/planning of tourist developments/corruption

Poor transport infrastructure/poor road network/unpredictable railways/ infrequent air access in north

Lack of government funding/priority

Little tourism infrastructure / few tour agencies / hotels not international standard

Lack of maintenance/cleanliness of tourist areas.

Q.5.    Tourism is a service industry. Name two other service industries. Ans.    Any two from:

public administration/government transport

retailing/shops banking/banks/finance doctors/healthcare/medical teaching/education legal/lawyers entertainment/media

social care/home helps/family helpers/domestics, insurance hospitality/hotels

telecommunications etc.

Study Figs 10 and 11 which give information about visitors into Pakistan in 1999.

Fig.10                                                                          Fig.11

Q.6.    A         What percentage of visitors into Pakistan was classed as tourists? Ans.                13% (accept 12–14%)

B         What was the total number of visitors into Pakistan?

655 000 (accept 640 000–670 000)

Q.7.    Suggest one reason why more people visited relatives compared to visiting

Pakistan as tourists. Ans.    Lower cost

Large/extended families spread out in different countries

Work abroad

Few tourist attractions

Terrorism/lack of security/political instability

Poor transport infrastructure.

Q.7.    Read the following two views:

1.         Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries. More attractions

and facilities for tourists must be built to help Pakistan develop.

2.         Tourist facilities must be restricted. The increasing number of tourists will damage our culture and cause environmental degradation.

Which view do you agree with more? Give reasons to support your answer.

Ans.7. Tourism increased

Tourist income likely to be high (and greater than from other sources, e.g. from

exporting rawmaterials) Creates employment

Boosts cottage craft industries (leading to financial stability/preservation of culture/heritage)

Locals can use tourist facilities (which increases their quality of life) Increases cultural linkages with foreign countries

Source of foreign exchange/improves economy (which will enable Pakistan to clear debts)

2. Tourism restricted

Only seasonal employment (May–Oct in northern areas)

Money could be spent on other important sectors (such as minerals, power, manufacturing,

mechanising agriculture, alleviation of poverty)

Displacement of local people to make way for development, e.g. hotels

Named social problems e.g. crime, alcohol/drugs Lack of respect for local customs/beliefs Increases prices of local goods/food

Clearing of natural habitat to make way for tourist developments (e.g. deforestation in

Swat Valley)

Unsightly hotel construction

Air/noise pollution from more vehicles

Water pollution in rivers from overloaded sewerage system


Q.8.    Read the following two views about the possibilities for tourism in Sindh province:

1.         Hotels and tourist resorts need to be developed along the Sindh coast to bring foreign exchange and boost the economy.

2.         The coastal area of Sindh cannot support large numbers of tourists. There could be negative effects from tourism.

Ans.8.  For tourism

Sindh has many tourist attractions

Beaches (Clifton Beach / Sand spit / Hawkes Bay / Paradise Point)

Historical buildings (Quaid-i-Azam Mausoleum / National Museum / Mohatta Palace) Tourism industry undeveloped / has scope for development / investment

Creates employment (such as drivers / guides / hotel staff)

Against tourism

Sensitive environment (threats to mangrove forests / fishing grounds)

Tourists bring culturally unacceptable behaviour / dress code

Tourists can pollute the environment with noise / litter / oil from jet skis, etc. (which disturbs

local residents / looks unsightly / is a danger to wildlife)

Indus delta / most of Sindh coast unsuitable for development (swamps / marshes /

creeks / forests)

Karachi needs tourist industry infrastructure (e.g. no passenger ferry terminal) Declining / lack of tourist numbers

Employment only seasonal

Loss of livelihood due to construction of resorts (e.g. fishermen)

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