Tourism is a phenomenon where by people move temporarily to places away from home, primarily for relaxation and tourism is a tertiary industry.
Why do people travel to Pakistan?
1. For physical reasons such as to improve their health or participate in a sporting event.
2. For cultural reasons such as being curious about foreign places, people or cultures.
3. For personal reasons such as to visit friends and relatives.
4. People also travel for prestige and status reasons.
5. For educational or professional goals.
6. For recreational purpose.
Factors (Affect the tourism industry in Pakistan)
1. Presence of tourist attractions.
2. Level of security for the tourist.
3. Availability of capital.
4. Provision of infrastructure facilities.
5. Management of tourist attractions.
6. Marketing and publicity at International level.
7. The feasibility of developing transport and communication.
8. Government priorities.
International Tourists / Visitors
There are three main groups of International tourists / visitors.
a. For business
b. Visiting families c. For recreation
(a) The international business visitors mainly come to Pakistan from the European countries for a number of reasons, which include:
i. To attend trade delegations.
ii. For educational activities e.g. some educational institutions have hired foreign staff e.g. Principal and teachers.
iii. As staff of multinational companies such as oil companies, Foreign Banks e.g. Citibank, Standard Charted Bank.
iv. As UNO officials who are working in a number of projects in Pakistan e.g. WHO (World Health Organization).
(b) Many Pakistani’s work abroad mainly in K.S.A, Kuwait, U.A.E, UK and U.S.A. They are not tourist but when on holidays, they come to visit their families, friends in Pakistan almost every year. They stay with family members and not in hotels.
(c) Foreign tourists who visit Pakistan only for: Recreational purposes
Historic Interests (Places) Museum
Different culture to their own
Visiting Northern areas and beautiful lakes and gullies.
Main Sources of Visitors:
The UK has remained the main source of visitors. Other sources were India, Germany, Japan, Russia, China, Canada, Netherland, France, Sri Lanka, Australia, Saudi Arab, UAE, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Malaysia and Turkey.
Most of the visitors from overseas visited main cities like Karachi, Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Lahore. This is mainly due to the nature of these visits, which are dominated by Pakistani’s returning to visit friends and relatives.
Cultural Attractions in Pakistan:
Pakistan is famous for its cultural heritage, which may attract a number of domestic and foreign tourists, the ones who are interested in History, culture and Archaeological research. Cultural attractions which exist in Pakistan and which either have been or could be made available to tourists include:
Archaeological Sites: Moen-Jo-Daro
Historic and Religious Sites: Forts (Baltit), Lahore
Mosques (Badshahi Lahore, Mahabat in Peshawar)
Tombs (Chaukandi near Karachi, Makli near Thatta, Allam Iqbal and Ranjit Sings in Lahore) Sharines (Uch sharif)
Khyber Pass Shalimar Garden Kalash Valley Swat Valley.
Modern Buildings: Faisal Mosque,
Parliament Building, President House Minar-e-Pakistan Jinnah Mausoleum.
Natural Attractions (In Northern Areas)
The northern areas of our country have many attractions which are the following. Mountains,
Snowcapped peaks, Fauna and Flora, Natural vegetations, Photography, Hiking,
Snow falling, Steep slopes, Polo matches,
River, Lakes and Glaciers,
Beautiful valleys like Hunza, Skardu, Swat and Kaghan.
It is one of the most splendid tourist area in Pakistan and located in Himalaya, north east of Hazara District KPK. The valley is full of natural attractions which are as follows. Mountain and Mountains peaks
Snow capped peaks, Snow falling, Shogran,
Fishing in River Kunhar, e.g. Trout Fish, Lake Saiful Maluk,
Jeep riding, Glaciers, Waterfalls,
Forests / Orchards.
Other Attractions in Cities (Historical Places and Monuments)
As such, there are many historical places and monuments exist in different cities, which attract the tourists, these are as follows:
Pakistan’s capital, planned city and located at the base of the Margalla Hills. President House, Parliament and Faisal Mosque
Rawal Lake and Dam
Shakar Parrian Daman-e-Koh Pakistan Monument Lok Varsa
Provincial Capital (Sindh) Sea Port
International Air Port
Hawkes Bay and Paradise point
The National Museum
The Mausoleum of the Quaid-e-Azam
Provincial Capital (Punjab)
Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosuqe
Jehangir’s Tomb and Allama Iqbal Tomb
Shalimar Garden and other parks
Punjab University old and new campus
Hotels (Pearl Continental, Services, Holiday Inn, Avary Hotel).
Provincial Capital (KPK) Khyber Pass
Bala Hissar Fort Mahabat Khan Mosque Peshawar Museum.
Provincial Capital (Balochistan) Bolan and Khojak Pass
Hill resort of Ziarat
Q.1. Explain how local people can gain income from tourism in mountain areas. Ans. Opening shops in village
Making / sale of crafts
Guides (on tracks / trails)
Named services e.g. hotels / resturants
Named transport services
Offering accomodation in own home
Construction of tourist facilities.
Q.2. To what extent is it possible to increase tourism in Pakistan in the 21st century? Ans. Possibilities
By providing good infrastructure, security and improved living conditions
Training for staff in tourism industry / education about accepting tourists
Maintenance / cleanliness of tourist attractions
Tourist attractions i.e. natural, modern and archeological sites
Stratefies for increasing tourism e.g. preventing deforestation in tourist areas, removing littering / rubbish.
Unstable political situation
Lack of security or fear of terrorism Accommodation below western standards Poor named infrastructure
High cost of developing tourist areas / facilities
Lack of government support / attention / interest.
Q.3. Choose a province and name two tourist attractions within it.
Ancient history/archaeology – Taxila/ Harappa
Hillstations – Murree/Nathia Gali
Tombs/shrines -Allama Iqbal/Ranjit Singh/ Jahangir
Culture – Mughal architecture/ Shalimar Gardens/ Badshahi mosque, Lahore Fort/Rohtas Fort
buildings – Minar–e-Pakistan/Presidential palace/Parliament building/Faisal mosque
Other – Khewra salt mines.
Ancient history/archaeology – Mohenjo-Daro/ Bhambore/ Kot Deji
Tombs/shrines – Shahbaz Qalander (sufi)/ Muhammad Ali Jinnah/Mazar-e-Quaid./ Chaukundi/ Makli
Culture – Mughal architecture/Jamia Masjid/ Ranikot Fort/ Kafir-Qila Fort
Hillstations – Gorakh, Lakes – Keenjhar, Manchar.
Valleys – Kaghan/Kumrat/Swat/Kalam/Naran
Lakes – Saiful Muluk
Q.4. Suggest two problems the tourist industry in Pakistan must overcome in order for
it to be more developed.
Ans. Poor security/terrorism/political instability
Bad management/planning of tourist developments/corruption
Poor transport infrastructure/poor road network/unpredictable railways/ infrequent air access in north
Lack of government funding/priority
Little tourism infrastructure / few tour agencies / hotels not international standard
Lack of maintenance/cleanliness of tourist areas.
Q.5. Tourism is a service industry. Name two other service industries. Ans. Any two from:
public administration/government transport
retailing/shops banking/banks/finance doctors/healthcare/medical teaching/education legal/lawyers entertainment/media
social care/home helps/family helpers/domestics, insurance hospitality/hotels
Study Figs 10 and 11 which give information about visitors into Pakistan in 1999.
Q.6. A What percentage of visitors into Pakistan was classed as tourists? Ans. 13% (accept 12–14%)
B What was the total number of visitors into Pakistan?
655 000 (accept 640 000–670 000)
Q.7. Suggest one reason why more people visited relatives compared to visiting
Pakistan as tourists. Ans. Lower cost
Large/extended families spread out in different countries
Few tourist attractions
Terrorism/lack of security/political instability
Poor transport infrastructure.
Q.7. Read the following two views:
1. Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries. More attractions
and facilities for tourists must be built to help Pakistan develop.
2. Tourist facilities must be restricted. The increasing number of tourists will damage our culture and cause environmental degradation.
Which view do you agree with more? Give reasons to support your answer.
Ans.7. Tourism increased
Tourist income likely to be high (and greater than from other sources, e.g. from
exporting rawmaterials) Creates employment
Boosts cottage craft industries (leading to financial stability/preservation of culture/heritage)
Locals can use tourist facilities (which increases their quality of life) Increases cultural linkages with foreign countries
Source of foreign exchange/improves economy (which will enable Pakistan to clear debts)
2. Tourism restricted
Only seasonal employment (May–Oct in northern areas)
Money could be spent on other important sectors (such as minerals, power, manufacturing,
mechanising agriculture, alleviation of poverty)
Displacement of local people to make way for development, e.g. hotels
Named social problems e.g. crime, alcohol/drugs Lack of respect for local customs/beliefs Increases prices of local goods/food
Clearing of natural habitat to make way for tourist developments (e.g. deforestation in
Unsightly hotel construction
Air/noise pollution from more vehicles
Water pollution in rivers from overloaded sewerage system
Q.8. Read the following two views about the possibilities for tourism in Sindh province:
1. Hotels and tourist resorts need to be developed along the Sindh coast to bring foreign exchange and boost the economy.
2. The coastal area of Sindh cannot support large numbers of tourists. There could be negative effects from tourism.
Ans.8. For tourism
Sindh has many tourist attractions
Beaches (Clifton Beach / Sand spit / Hawkes Bay / Paradise Point)
Historical buildings (Quaid-i-Azam Mausoleum / National Museum / Mohatta Palace) Tourism industry undeveloped / has scope for development / investment
Creates employment (such as drivers / guides / hotel staff)
Sensitive environment (threats to mangrove forests / fishing grounds)
Tourists bring culturally unacceptable behaviour / dress code
Tourists can pollute the environment with noise / litter / oil from jet skis, etc. (which disturbs
local residents / looks unsightly / is a danger to wildlife)
Indus delta / most of Sindh coast unsuitable for development (swamps / marshes /
creeks / forests)
Karachi needs tourist industry infrastructure (e.g. no passenger ferry terminal) Declining / lack of tourist numbers
Employment only seasonal
Loss of livelihood due to construction of resorts (e.g. fishermen)