Transport and Communications in Pakistan Uncategorized Notes on Transport and Telecommunications 2059/02

Notes on Transport and Telecommunications 2059/02

Transport and Communications in Pakistan

T r  a  n  s  p  o  r  t

Transportation is crucial to the economy of any country. Roads, Railway, airways and waterways used as a means of transport now a days. Railway and roads are the main arteries of communication, allowing goods to be transported from one part of the country to another. Through them, goods can be sent to seaports and from there to countries around the world and people from one place to another. Transportation network is strong indexes of the economic development of the country. In this connection the transport should be speedy, efficient and cheap. The transport effects the economic and social aspects. They carry the raw material to the industries and manufactured goods to the market. So, it increases the process of industrialization.

Means of Transport

1.  Railways

2.  Roads

3.  Airways

4.  Water ways.


Railways are the quick and efficient means of transport. They transport cargo especially heavy items for a long distance. Pakistan Railway is under the control of Ministry of Pakistan Railway, but at the present time some tracks have been given to private sector. The Railway inherited by Pakistan in 1947 was laid down by the British in 1861. In 1947, the route-kilometers of Pakistan Railways was 8554, which has increased to 8857 kms. in year 2000.

In the beginning the extension work of the Pakistan Railways was hampered because of the difficulty in maintaining and running the existing strength, particularly as the locomotives were run on coal, a scarce commodity after partition. Whatever coal Pakistan produced was of an inferior quality and it became increasingly difficult to import coal from India, the main supplier. Pakistan was forced to change its engines from coal to diesel at an enormous expense.


Railway track is known as Gauge. There are three types of gauge.

1.  Broad Gauge     (5 feet and 3 inches wide)

2.  Meter Gauge     (3 feet and 3 inches wide)

3.  Narrow Gauge  (2 feet and 6 inches wide)

The Government of Pakistan has changed the Meter and Narrow gauges into Broad gauge due to the following reasons:

1.  Less speed  (Speed Problem)

2.  Could not carry the maximum load for a long distance.

3.  Repairing and maintaining was expensive.

Railway Workshops

Railway workshops had to be set up to remodel, repair and maintain them. Because there

was little local wood, railway sleepers (which were made of wood at the time) were always in short supply. Pakistan railways slowly made the transition to concrete sleepers. Just as Pakistan Railways was fully rehabilitated, there was a new source of competition i.e. road transport. Railway workshops are the following:

1.  Mughalpura Railway workshop Lahore.

2.  Carriage and Wagon workshop Islamabad.

3.  Carriage and Wagon Workshop Hyderabad.

4.  Pakistan Locomotive Factory Risalpur.

Problems / Disadvantages of Pakistan Railway

1.  Lack of Capital as railway requires immense initial investment i.e. for laying track, buying the new carriages.

2.  High cost of repairing the tracks, sleepers and engines.

3.  Switching from coal to diesel or electric engines.

4.  Electrification of tracks and engines also require capital that’s why a limited length of

track is electrified i.e. Lahore to Khanewal.

5.  Broken track can cause serious accidents.

6.  Over staffing and corruption.

7.  A poor reservation system.

8.  Uneconomic Stations.

9.  The presence of single track on a short segment of the main dual line which has severely affected the running of more than one train at a time.

Importance / Advantages of Pakistan Railways

1.  Pakistan Railway is efficient, convenient, cheap and speedy for long distance.

2.  Railway normally transported the bulky and heavy goods for long distance.

3.  It is safe and comfortable.

4.  Pakistan Railway is avoiding congestion and delay.

5.  Run to a regular and a reliable timetable.

Developments of Pakistan Railways

1.  Replacement of steam engines with diesel engines due to shortage of coal.

2.  Electric train has been established from Lahore to Khanewal.

3.  Establishment of repairing workshops in different parts of the country.

4.  Introduction of faster trains from Lahore to Karachi e.g. Night Coach.

5.  Narrow and Meter gauge had been changed into Broad gauge.

6.  The work on the railway track has to change from single to dual track.

7.  Construction of Karachi Circular Railway (KCR) which was built to ease the transportation of goods and passengers within the city.

8.  The Pakistan Railways has opened computerized ticketing system for reservation of seats, just to earn maximum.

9.  In order to improve the functioning of Pakistan Railways, the government has decided to allow private investors to operate freight and passenger trains by paying charges to Pakistan Railways for the use of its rail track.

Principle Routes

1.   Karachi to Lahore

2.   Rawalpindi to Peshawar

3.   Quetta to Chaman

4.   Kotri to Larkana

5.   Faisalabad to Khanewal

6.   Karachi to Quetta via Kotri, Larkana and Jacobabad

7.   Faisalabad-Sargodha-Khushab

8.   Rawalpindi-Kohat

9.   Sibi-Khost

10. Peshawar to Karachi via Rawalpindi and Lahore.

Photograph of Single Track.

Photograph of Single Track
Photograph of Double Track
Photograph of Railway Signal
Photograph of Railway Signal

International Railway Links

Railways system connects Pakistan with Iran through Balochistan, India through Wagha

Boarder (Attari), Afghanistan through Khyber Pass. Study Fig.1, map of Pakistan Railway.


Q.1.    Describe the pattern of Pakistan’s railways.

Ans.    Close and dense network of railways in Punjab and Sindh Province.

Railways run parallel to the rivers

At some places railway lines cross the rivers. Peshawar and Quetta are connected by rail.

A railway line runs from Quetta to Iran. No railway in south west Balochistan. No railway in northern areas.

Q.2.     What are the advantages of rail transport for carrying raw materials to factories?

Ans.     Advantages


Transport bulky / heavy commodities. Safe and faster.

Suitable for long journey.

Run to a regular and reliable timetable.

Q.3.     What are the disadvantages of rail transport for carrying raw materials to factories?

Ans.     Disadvantages

Not flexible.

Does not provide door to door facility. Trains do not reach the factories. Danger of loss and wastage.

Loading and unloading at railway station is expensive. Industrialist pay extra transportation charges while shifting.

Q.4.     With the help of examples explain why large areas of Pakistan have no railways and only a few roads, which are mostly kacha.

Ans.    North and north western areas.

Hilly / mountains / rugged topography e.g. Gilgit and Chitral.

South eastern areas consist of deserts e.g. Cholistan and Tharparkar. Balochistan is a hilly area.

Steep slopes.

Sand plains in desert areas / sand dunes. Difficult to construct.

Roads are cheaper to construct (kacha). Less population / less number of users.

Photograph of Broken Track.

A broken Track
Another broken track
Photograph of Railway Station (Platform)
Photograph of Railway Engine (Diesel)

Q.5     To what extent is it possible to develop railways further in pakistan?

Support your answer by using examples you have studied.

Ans.    Possible

Government / private funding (providing faster trains, e.g. Shalimar Express) Computerising ticket system

Allowing private operating companies who pay to use track


Changing single track to dual e.g. Khanewal to Lodhran

Foreign funded e.g. funded by china.

Not possible

Hilly / difficult terrain

Much of network single track

Lack of maintnance

Overstaffed or lack of management

Outdated locomotive

Lack of funding.


Road transport is the most popular means of transport. It includes motor vehicles such as buses, trucks, cars, taxis, rickshaws, jeeps and motor cycles. Road transport carries 82 % of the total passenger traffic and 54 % of the total freight traffic in the country. Now Pakistan has a total of 2,05,850 kms including 1,05,280 kms of highways’s and 1,00,570 kms of low type of roads. Two important agencies handling road development, repair etc. are NLC (National Logistic Cell) and NHA (National Highway Authority). NLC was establish  in  1978,  is  performing  a  great  service  by  transport  gains,  edible  oil  and petroleum to and from Karachi port. Road traffic in Pakistan is mainly in private hands. Importance of Road Transport

Importance of Roads

1.  Pakistan 64 % population is living in rural areas, which has no access to railways. these rural areas are linked with cities and agricultural markets by roads.

2.  The development of rural areas depends on the availability of roads. If the network of roads are constructed the rural life may be prosperous.

3.  By the construction of roads, agriculture sector can be developed by providing agri- inputs and machinery and agri-products access to urban market.

4.  Industrial products, consumer goods require roads for their supply to rural and urban centers.

5.  For short distances and quick traveling roads are most feasible and time saving.

6.  Roads play an important role in mountainous areas, where rail construction is not feasible.

Roads have gained preference over Rail and Air transport due to:

1.  Greater Flexibility

2.  Frequency

3.  Speed

4.  Economy.

Types of Road

There are three types of road:

1.  Metalled Road                             2.  Unmetalled Road             3.  Soling

1. Metalled Road:

Metalled roads are made up of stones layers and carpeted by Bitumen.

2. Unmetalled Road:

Unmetalled  roads without any covering of stones or bricks.

3. Soling

Soling made up of bricks and cement.

Advantages of Road

1.  Road system is flexible.

2.  Road can provide door to door service.

3.  Roads are better source of daily traveling, for jobs and provide faster connectivity.

4.  Fast over short routes e.g.(Motorway).

5.  Roads can be built and maintained comparatively more cheap even in rugged areas.

6.  Good network of roads, promote industrialization.

Disadvantages of Road

1.  Expensive for long distance.

2.  Slow in urban areas due to dense population.

3.  Road increases air pollution.

4.  Only small load can be carried.

5.  Expensive to build and maintain.

6.  Cost increases rapidly with time.

Principle Roads of Pakistan

1Coastal Highway connecting Karachi with Bela, Turbat and onward to Iran with a length of 603 Kms.

2Grant Truck Road connects Lahore with Peshawar passing through Gujranwala, Jhelum and Rawalpindi.

3Indus Super Highway is between Karachi and Peshawar running along the western bank of Indus River.

4National Highway (N-5) connects Karachi with Lahore passing through Thatta, Hyderabad Nawabshah, Sukkur, Bawalpur, Multan, Sahiwal, Okara and Renala. The cargo trucks mainly use it.

5Karachi Quetta road connect Karachi to Quetta after passing Bela and Khuzdar.

6Lahore Quetta road passes through Taunsa and D.G. Khan having followed the

National highway up till Multan.

7Super highway is yet the best metalled road in Pakistan and it connects Karachi with Hyderabad.

8Karakoram highway (N-35) connects Pakistan with China through Khanjrab Pass.

Study Fig.2, a map of the road network in Pakistan in 2002

Study Fig.3, a map showing three major cities and two major roads

Q.1.    Name the cities X, Y and Z.


X.  Quetta

Y.  Multan

Z.  Hyderabad.

Q.2.     For each of the roads leading to A and B, state the country to which it is going and the name of the pass through which it goes.

Ans.    A. to China,  through the Khunjerab Pass.

B. to Afghanistan, through the Khyber Pass.

Q.3.     Describe the ways in which the road network of Punjab is different from the road network of Sindh.

Ans.    Punjab more dense and Sindh less dense.

Sindh ‘other roads’ more dense in south and Punjab all over (none in SE).

More areas in Sindh with few / no roads. More Foci.

Sindh 2 main roads follow River Indus  then West to Karachi and Punjab spread out.

Mototway in Punjab, not in Sindh.

Q.4.    Give reasons for your answer to Q.3.

Ans.    One river in Sindh and 5 in Punjab roads follow these routes.

More desert in Sindh – less habitable.

Large areas of low population density in Sindh – less need. Fewer major cities in Sindh – less need.

Industrial development.

Q.5.     Explain why there are few roads in the area north of the line P – P shown on the Fig.2.

Ans.    Mountains.

Steep slopes. Landslides. Snow. Avalanches. Floods.

Lack of demand.

Q.6.    Name the cities A, B and C. Ans.    A – Hyderabad

B – Lahore.

C – Peshawar.

Q.7.    Using the map, describe the route of the N5road, starting from Karachi. Ans.    NE (to Lahore).

NW / then W (to Peshawar / Afghanistan). (East side of) River Indus.

Khyber pass to Afghanistan. Crosses river at Hyderabad. Follows River Chenab then Ravi. Crosses River Ravi (near Lahore).

Q.8.    Compare this to the route of the Indus Highway. Ans.    Other / west side of River Indus.

Heads north in Punjab instead of NE / follows only the Indus. Does not go to Lahore / other large cities.

Shorter / more direct. Crosses only one river.

Study Fig.4, a graph showing freight carried in a year by road and by railway in Pakistan

Q.9.     Compare the amounts of freight carried by road and railway between 1997 and 2006.

Ans.    Total larger by road.

Both increased 2003-6.

Road always increases but rail decreased in 2000.

Road 84 – 117 but rail 4 – 6 (1000 million tones per km) rail stayed almost the same.

About 20* more than railway.

Q.10.  Suggest reasons for the differences in the amounts carried by road and railway.

Ans.    More roads than railways.

More road vehicles than rail.

More places accessible by road / lorries can go anywhere / door to door service. Lorries more useful / carry small amounts.

Railways old / lack of investment.

Investment in new / better roads / motorways.

Q.11.  Why are there very few major roads and railways in Balochistan? Ans.    Low population density.

Scattered population / few towns / lack of urban development. Rugged / mountainous areas.

Desert / lack of water / difficult working conditions. Lack of government investment / backward.

Little industry. Tribal opposition.

Q.12.  Explain how better transport routes could help to increase development in


Ans.    Industrialization – bigger lorries, employment.

Urbanization – better travel. Faster travel for cars and lorries. EPZ and dry port developed.

Better access to port at Gwadar / coastal development. Travel to Afghanistan or Iran via Quetta and passes. Access for health and education.


Mineral exploitation.

Fishing development / better access to market. More security.

Study Fig.5.


Q.13.  give two advantages of transporting goods by

Ans.    A Bullock Cart Cheap / economic. Not fuel cost.

Available / used in other farm work.

B Lorry

Quick / fast.

Carries bigger / heavier load.

Can go further / does not need to rest.

Q.14.  Compare transport by road and rail for raw cotton from the farms to where it is processed within Pakistan.

Ans.    Road transport collects directly from but rail cannot.

Road transport delivers directly to mill / small unit but rail rarely does. Road transport cheaper / faster over short distances.

Road transport more efficient for small amounts / rail transport for large amounts. Rail transport may be cheaper / faster over long distances.

Robbery more likely with road transport.

Road transport is not governed by timetable as is rail.

Q.15.  What would be the most suitable form of transport from Peshawar to Chitral be for

A  a rich business?

B  the delivery of gas cylinders?

C  the transport of wool and hides? Ans.    A   a rich business

Aeroplane / Car

B   the delivery of gas cylinders

Road / Lorry / Rail.

C   the transport of wool and hides

Road, pack animal, lorry, rail.

Q.16.  Explain the problems of maintaining infrastructure and communication in these (Peshawar and Chitral) areas all through the year.

Ans.    Snow and Ice.

Danger of avalanches. Heavy rain.

Flooding. Earthquakes. Landslides.

Shortage of machinery / people. Inaccessible / isolated.


Pakistan motorway project will ultimately provide North, South link in the country. The fast growth of traffic on national highway has made transport slower and in-efficient. To relieve traffic pressure on national highway , the motorway was considered in 1990. It will be a six lanes and will provide a completely uninterrupted flow of traffic and exit only at the designated interchanges.

Motorway can be divided into following sections

M1IslamabadtoPeshawar Section
M2IslamabadtoLahore Section
M3Pindi BhattiantoFaisalabad Section
M4FaisalabadtoMultan Section
M5Multan –toD.G.Khan Section
M6D.G.KhantoRato Dero Section
M7Rato DerotoKarachi Section
M8Rato DerotoGawadar Section
M9KarachitoHyderabad Section
Sections of Motorway

Features of Motorway

1.  Motorway is two way side and three lane system.

2.  Construction of flyovers, underpass and bridges on rivers.

3.  Constructions of interchanges.

4.  Emergency phones have been installed.

5.  Toll Plaza.

6.  Restaurant, Filling station and rest areas.

Photograph of Motorway
Photograph of Motorway

Advantages / Importance of Motorway / Why we have


1.  It reduces the burden of traffic on National Highway of the country.

2.  It will reduce the chances of accidents.

3.  It connects the main cities.

4.  Industrial estates could be established on its side, which will open up employment opportunities.

5.  It would promote industrial growth by supplying raw material to industries and manufactured goods to market.

6.  Many new settlement could established near motorway.

7.  Motorway could further be connected to Afghanistan and central Asian republics which will increase foreign trade.

8.  Road transport should be quicker and more efficient.

Study Fig.6, showing the location of motor way in Pakistan

Q.1.    Why was the first motorway in Pakistan built between Islamabad and


Ans.    Two large centers of population.

Passed by other populated areas.

To promote growth of industrial estates.

Large volume of traffic / ease congestion / save other roads. Better for lorries / large vehicles.

Link from Lahore to Karakoram Highway.

Q.2.    To what extent would the building of more motorways such as that between

Lahore and Islamabad help the development of industry in Pakistan? Ans.     Advantages

Better movement of finished products from industry to ports / other towns. Better movement of raw materials / machinery to industry.

Stimulates industrial development near motorway. Helps development of dry ports.

Better movement of business men / tourist. Faster travel.

Better road surface / wider for large vehicles / lorries. Shorter / by – passes towns and villages.

Relieves other roads.

Disadvantages / Problems


Takes long time to build. Needs maintenance. Increases debt.

Only connects large centers.

Will not go to small towns / rural areas.

Road Transport VS Rail Transport

Road TransportRail Transport
Motor vehicles are relatively inexpensiveRailway engines, sleepers and wagons are expensive.
Roads are easier to build and maintainRail tracks are difficult to build and maintain
Industrial estates develop with the construction of roadsDoes not encourage industrial estate because railway stations are built at a distance increasing expense.
For short distances, people prefer to travel by roadsFor long distances fast trains are preferred
Wagons and buses drop people at convenient placesThe trains stops at the stations only
Carries perishable and high value goodsRailway transport bulky low value goods
Short term returns on investmentLong term returns on investment
Roads can be built and maintained comparatively cheaply in rugged areasVery expensive to build in rugged terrain
Comparison of Road and Rail Transport

Air Transport

Air Transport is most effective for low volume and high value goods that need to be moved quickly.

There is an extensive domestic air network linking all the key cities and major district centres. In 1947, Orient Airways a small air company, operated in Pakistan. By 1949 there were three small air companies, Pakistan Airways, Orient Airways and Crescent Airways. After 1955 two of these closed and Orient Airways merged with Pakistan Airways to form Pakistan International Airlines.

PIA (Pakistan International Airline)

PIA (Pakistan International Airline) was established in 1955 to provide safe and efficient transport on domestic and International routes. The network of Pakistan International Airlines now covers 55 International and 37 domestic destinations.

The Civil Aviation Authority manages and develops civil aviation in Pakistan.

Air Transport and Private Sector

With the deregulation of the airline industry in the early 1990s, three private airlines started operating in the country.

1.  Shaheen Airlines

2.  Bhoja Airlines (closed)

3.  Aero Asia Airlines.

These airlines operate on domestic routes to the major cities but are starting to expand Internationally. New airlines are starting and this should provide a more competitive environment.

Domestic Routes of PIA

Big Cities:-  Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Faisalabad, Multan, Hyderabad, Sukkur and Quetta.

Intermediate Size Towns:-       Nawabshah, Jacobabad, Mianwali, Bannu, Kohat, D.I.Khan, Larkana.

Inaccessible Areas / Remote   Gilgit, Skardu, Chitral, Zhob, Khuzdar, Pasni, Panjgur, Turbat, Jiwani.

 PIA’s  In ternation a l  Routes

European Countries                UK, Germany, France, Italy, Russia.

U.S.A.                                               New York, Chicago, Washington D.C.

Middle East Countries            UAE (Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, and Dubai) Bahrain, Oman.

Eastern and Far Eastern         India, Malaysia, Philippines, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka

Countries                                  Singapore, Thailand, China (notably Hong Kong).

International Airport

It is an airport or place from which airlines of more than one country operate to the destination outside the country. Such airport are located in big cities having large population and major economic activities e.g. Karachi, Islamabad, Lahore.

An International Airport needs

1.  A much larger area of land / Air Craft Parking.

2. A longer runway (to handle larger aircraft).

3. Major road / rail links.

4. To be near a larger city / center of International / trade.

5. An International airport usually operate day and night.

Regional Airport

It is primarily for the domestic flights for transportation of passengers and cargo within the country. Such air ports are located in far flung towns which have less population and provide traveling facilities to local people within the country for the long distance, e.g. Chitral, Skardu, Rahim Yar Khan, Sukkur.

Regional Airport needs

1. A small area of land / Air craft Parking.

2. A smaller runway (to handle small aircraft).

3. Regional road / rail links.

4. To be near a smaller / larger city.

5. Regional airport usually operate day time.

6. A regional airport handles small no. of passenger.

Q.1.    What conditions are necessary for the location of an Airport? Ans.    Flat land.

Very Large Area. Cheap Land.

Well Drained. Solid Ground.

Large pool of Labour (Skilled and Unskilled). Close to utilities (Water, Electricity).

Road / Rail links to nearby areas. Far away from houses.

.           (Preferably) Sunny / Dry / Frost free / Snow free / Fog free climate.

Large source of custom.

Q.2.    Why has the development of air transport been important within Pakistan? Ans.    Large country.

Remote areas which are cut off by high mountains / deserts. Many areas without railways.

Strategic reasons.

Help administration / government. Promote mineral exploration. Promote industry.

Promote internal trade.

Help tourist industry Emergency use. Rapid communications.

More people can afford air transport.

More comfortable / easier / preferred to land travel. Prestige.

Q.3.    Name an International airport in Pakistan. Ans.    Islamabad. Karachi. Lahore. Peshawar.

Q.4.    Name a regional airport in Pakistan.

Ans.    Gilgit. D.I.Khan. Hyderabad. Skardu. Quetta.

Factors contributing to the development of air transport

Internal Factors

1.  Effective mode of transport for high value light weight goods

2.  Easy access to remote areas

3.  Prestige

4.  Emergency use.

External Factors

1.  Transport of perishable items e.g. Fruits

2.  Migration

3.  Tourism Industry

4.  Delegations.

Study the map Fig.7, which shows internal air routes in Pakistan.

fig. 7

Q.5.    Describe the distribution of air routes in Pakistan. Ans.    Largest number / biggest foci from Karachi.

Centers / foci in other major cities e.g. Lahore, Multan, Turbat, Quetta. More south-north / SW – NE less east west.

Many routes follow Indus Plain. None in extreme north.

Few / none in Chagi, SE Sindh / Thar.

Q.6.    Describe the pattern of air routes from Islamabad. Ans.    I most directions / widely spread

More / many to south

Longer routes to the southwest Fewer / a few to the north Shorter to the north

None to the coast.

Q.7.    Explain why there are more internal air routes from: Ans.     Islamabad

Federal Capital

Administration / Business center

Larger population

More people can afford to travel / high standard of living

International airport

Access to Northern areas, Better road links.


Provincial Capital (Sindh)

Administration / Business centers / Industrial and Trade centers

Larger population

More people can afford to travel / high standard of living

International airport

Access to Southern areas and Desert areas

Better road and rail links.


Provincial Capital (Punjab)

Administration / Business centers / Indusrial centers / Trade centres

Larger population

More people can afford to travel / high standard of living

International airport

Access to Northern and Southern areas

Better road and rail links.


Provincial Capital (N.W.F.P)

Administration / Business centers / Industrial centers / Trade centers

Larger population

More people can afford to travel / high standard of living

International airport Access to Northern areas Better road and rail links.

Q.8.    Explain why there are less internal air routes from: Ans.     Dalbandin

Poor road links

Lower population

Less administration / office jobs

Fewer people can afford to travel / low standard of living

No international airport

Desert / barren land.

Q.9.    Why is air transport and travel important within Pakistan? Ans.    Faster than road and rail

Better to reach remote places / places where roads are poor

Better in hilly / mountainous areas Better for light, high value goods Less chances of robbery / safer More people can afford air fares More demand from business Tourism within Pakistan Emergencies

Improved communication between cities

Can be used all year / not affected by snow, flood etc.

Q.10.  Since 2000 the Sialkot Export Processing Zone has been in the process of development at Sambrial and a new airport is being built by the Sialkot Chamber of Commerce. How will these developments help the expansion if industry?

Ans.     EPZ

Government incentives

Infrastructure put in place

Attracts foreign / private investment

Attracts foreign technological / management skills

Improved quality

Better marketing


Closer than Lahore’s

Cheaper transport for imported light raw material

More convenient for visiting businessmen More convenient for exporting light goods Service industries develop to serve airport Tourism.

Q.11.  What factors hinder the development of air transport in  northern areas  of


Ans.    Bad weather / snow / ice / fog / heavy rain / floods

Lack of flat land for runways / airways

Lack of good roads to airports

Lack of passengers

Problem of blocked radio signals. Study Fig.8, a map of air routes in Pakistan.

Fig. 8

Q.12.  Name two major airports in the northern Punjab shown on the map. Ans.    Lahore (Allama Iqbal)

Islamabad. Faisalabad.

Q.13.  Describe the distribution of air routes from the northern Punjab. Ans.    Mostly to the south-west / south.

To the coast / Karachi. Follow the Indus Plain. A few north and west. To NWFP / Peshawar.

Via Islamabad to Northern areas / Chitral / Gilgit. West to Quetta.

Q14.    Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using air transport in the northern Punjab.

Ans.     Advantages

Fast / saves time.

Over difficult relief / mountains / deserts. Where no roads / railways / inaccessible. Direct to other countries.

Business / Politicians / Tourism. More comfortable.

High value / light goods. Promotes tourism.


Bad climate / fog / snow.


Unsuitable for perishables / heavy loads / cheap goods. Few airports / difficult to build.

Does not go door to door.

Air pollution / global warming.

Dry Port

A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road / rail to a sea port and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations.

Some inland cities which are far from seaport have established dry ports in order to promote the foreign trade. The cities which act as a dry port help to speed up the process of export and imports by checking process and giving the clearance by the custom authorities.

Private companies take the responsibility to transport the goods to Karachi and arrange to lead the consignment on a proper cargo ship, which takes it to its destination.

At present, the dry ports working in Pakistan are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Multan, Peshawar, Quetta, Hyderabad and Larkana.

Main Functions of Dry Port

1.  To deliver imported goods to the consignee and collect the exported goods at the dry port and not at the seaport.

2.  To clear goods through custom and complete other formalities.

3.  To save importers and exporters from the trouble and cost of going to the seaport.

4.  To reduce the work load of the seaports.

Purpose / Why are dry ports important to the economy of Pakistan?

1.  Reduce workload at Karachi port / Port Qasim

2.  Speeds up customs procedures

3.  Saves time transporting goods to Karachi

4.  Stimulate foreign trade (in cities far away from ports).

5.  Big source of revenue.

Facilities required for Dry Port

1.  Efficient managerial staff

2.  Heavy containers to carry bulk cargo

3.  Huge storage sheds and vast open area

4.  Highly efficient rail transport with a container to carry the bulk cargo.

5.  Security gate / guards

6.  Refrigeration facilities

7.  Cranes / loading facilities

8.  Export checks and clearance.

Advantages of Dry Port

1.  Reduce workload at Karachi port / Port Qasim

2.  Speed up customs procedures

3.  Saves time transporting goods to Karachi

4.  Stimulate foreign trade (in cities far away form ports).

5.  Big source of revenue.

Disadvantages of Dry Port

1.  Very expensive to construct dry ports

2.  Required very large area

3.  Due to mismanagement some dry ports have been converted into smuggling dense by the custom official who helped importers to get their consignment clear without paying duty and taxes.

Q.1     Give an example of a dry port and explain why it is located where it is. Ans.    Faisalabad / Hyderabad / Lahore / Larkana / Multan / Peshawar / Quetta.

Inland / far from seaport

In large cities

Where industries / productive agriculture regions

Where good road and / rail connections.

Q.2     Explain how dry ports have increased trade in Pakistan. Ans.    Increases foreign trade / more exports / more imports

Better access to remote areas / areas away from Karachi

Saves time

Less congestion / relieves burden at Karachi

Speeds up / more efficient paperwork

More efficient loading

Stimulated / encouraged business / investment.

Study Photograph A

Photograph A

Q.3.    Describe the features of Lahore Dry Port that can be seen in Photograph A. Ans.    Lorries / trucks / containers / trailers

Sign to import examination area

Storage sheds / warehouses

Covered loading area / shelter with poles

Loading platform

More containers in background / behind sheds

Flat / hard / concrete ground (2) men / drivers / labours Forklift truck.

Q.4.    State two other features of a dry port that cannot be seen in the Photograph


Ans.    Export checks and clearance

Import examination area

Railway yard, Refrigeration facilities Management offices / customs administration Cranes / loading facilities

Large storage area, Security gate / guards.

Q.5.    Why are dry ports important to the economy of Pakistan? Ans.    Reduce workload at Karachi port / Port Qasim

Speeds up customs procedures

Saves time transporting goods to Karachi

Stimulate foreign trade (in cities far away from ports). Big source of revenue.

Q.6.    What benefits do we get by developing transport resources?

Ans.    The role of transport for the development of a country can be classified into

Three categories:

Economic Increase in trade Mobility of labour Price stability

Link between rural & urban areas

Approach to market Increase in state income Advertisement of the products Reduction in unemployment Extension of settlement.

Political Political awareness Sound defence

Maintenance of law and order.


Spread of education

Culture interaction

Increased social welfare.

Water Transport

Waterways  are  important  for  handling  high  bulk  goods  which  do  not  need  quick movement.

The inland waterways along rivers are not developed but seaports handle most of the international trade.

Pakistan has two major seaports namely Karachi and Port Bin Qasim. Beside two fish harbour cum mini ports are Gwadar and Kati Bunder.

Recently  government  of  Pakistan  has  signed  and  agreement  with  china  to  develop

Gwadar as a deep seaport. First phase of this port has been completed in 2005.


A city or town with a harbor where ships stop to load and unload cargo. Important

Seaports of Pakistan are the following

1.  Karachi / Keamari

2.  Port Bin Qasim

3.  Gwadar

Karachi Seaport / Keamari

The port at Karachi is located to the west of the Indus Delta on the Arabian Sea. It is a deep water natural seaport with a long approach channel and can receive tankers, Containers, bulk and general cargo ships. It is also a natural harbour sheltered by the islands of Keamari and a breakwater at Manora.

It has a number of wharves. In the eastern part of the port, 17 wharves have been developed. They are collectively called East Wharf. West wharf is located at the western side of the port.


A programme to modernize Keamari / Karachi port has been initiated to provide the following facilities.

1.         Construction of flyover bridges connecting and bypassing the port area have been built to ease traffic congestion in the port area.

2.         Reconstruction of berths to handle increasing volumes of cargo.

3.         Provision of navigational aids and radars.

4.         Environmental protection equipment to keep port seawater clean from pollutants and seepage of oil from the ships.

5.         Improvement and expansion of storage facilities at both east and west wharves.

6.         Container terminals at west wharf to modernize cargo handling.

7.         Liquid products terminal with ancillaries (support facilities, i.e. unloading, storing and transporting of liquid products).

Port Bin Qasim

Port Qasim is located 20 kilometers south-east of Karachi developed at Gharo Creek. It is Pakistan’s second deep seaport which started in1977. The first phase of its construction was completed in 1982 with the cost of 2700 million rupees. It has modern machinery to relieve the pressure at the Karachi Port and for handling raw material for Pakistan Steel.

Port Qasim is the first integrated port of Pakistan that combines the function of multipurpose deep seaport and a designated industrial zone. It also offers transport and other infrastructure facilities for industrial development. 12,000 acres of land have been allocated for the establishment of industries. Some industries which are located there are paper  and  board,  chemicals,  cotton  textiles  and  assembly  industries.  This  port  is connected with main railway line at Pipri.

The major categories of cargo handled at Port Qasim include Iron ore, Coal, Grain, Furnace Oil, Edible Oil, Rice, LPG containers Jute and Fertilizers.

Container trade is increasing with fast speed, in 1994 a container terminal was also competed with latest loading and unloading facilities which is named as Qasim International Container Terminal, which started functioning on August 1997.

Q.1.    Explain why it was necessary to build this new port. Ans.    Increasing work load of Karachi port.

To increase import and export of the country.

For handling import of iron ore and coal for steel mill. To develop a new industrial area.

Q.2.    Explain why it was built on Gharo Creek. Ans.    Area of flat land

Deep water

Wide / large area of water

Sheltered water

Cheap / unpopulated area

Near / 20-23 kms from center of Karachi

Close to National Highway to Karachi Close to main railway line to Karachi Steel mill there.

Q.3.    Name its main imports and explain for what purposes they are imported. Ans.    Iron ore for the Pakistan Steel mill

Coal for the Pakistan Steel mill

Petroleum for power station / fuel for transport Grain to feed the growing population of Pakistan Edible oil for Pakistan’s food processing industries Jute for Pakistan’s jute mills

Fertilizers to increase farm yields

Electronics for industrial / domestic use

Machinery for factories / farming / mining/ transport etc.

Gwadar Sea Port

The Gwadar district is located on the Makran coast in Balochistan. The idea to construct a deep water port at Gwadar was first discussed in 1993 but it was not until 2001 that the government of Pakistan signed an agreement with China so that the plan could go ahead. The total area of the port will be 2500 acres. It is surrounded by a mountain range, desert, sand and tidal flats. The weather, most of the year is clear on account of very scanty rainfall.

Economic Development

1.   Could be used as a substitute to Karachi and Bin Qasim Port.

2.   Upgrading of Gwadar International Airport.

3.   Openings for trade with Central Asia, Afghanistan, China, Japan and Singapore.

4.   Warehouses built for storage.

5.   Bigger fish harbour.

6.   Opens employment opportunities to skilled and unskilled labors.

7.   Growth of industrial estates and export processing zones.

8.   Industries related / fish processing.

9.   Makran coastal highway to Karachi under construction.

10. Highway west to Central Asian Republics

11. Development of rail network

12. Setting up of grid stations by WAPDA to supply power.

13. Development of housing colonies, hotels and tourist resort.

14. Mirani Dam on River Dasht and Hingol Dam on River Hingol project.

15. Road link with Afghanistan and Iran.

16. QESCO power lines.

Q.1.    State and explain the main functions of the ports on the Balochistan coast. Ans.     Functions

Fishing harbour

Fish processing

Handling cargo / goods / trade import – export

Coal other named cargo


Arabian Sea rich in fish i.e. herring / mackerel / sardines / shark.

Makran produces little agricultural food.

Fish is essential part of diet / subsistence of coastal people

Road communications are very poor / railways are non-existent

Sea link is important for bulky / heavy items.

Q.2.    Why are the ports in Balochistan small? Ans.    No large estuaries / sheltered harbours

Small population of the Makran coast Mountainous / rugged interior Inhospitable interior

Less developed, Little agriculture,

Little industry for fishing Lack of infrastructure, Poor communication

Few links to developed areas to interior.

Study Fig.11, which is an outline map of the coastal areas of Pakistan.


Ans. X Y Gwadar Port bin Qasim.   Q.4.    Suggest reasons why these two ports were built. Ans. Gwadar to serve Balochistan and adjoining states, such as Afghanistan,     Iran and Central Asian States.   Port Qasim to service iron and steel industry; imported oil.     Both ports help to reduce the pressure on Karachi.    

Q.3.    Name the two new ports X and Y shown on Fig.11.


The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.

Q.1.    State two methods of telecommunication. Ans.    Telephone

E-mail / internet.. Fax.

Computer conferencing. Video Conferencing. Television.


Q.2.    Explain how telecommunication can be used to improve the supply of goods and increase trade in Pakistan and abroad.

Ans.     How


Can contact other countries / long distance communication. Easier communication.

Internet conferencing. Better advertising. For

Ordering / purchasing / buying / selling.

Internet banking / transfer of funds.

Finding out web / searching for goods or suppliers. Assembly of components.

Call centers.

Searching for goods or suppliers.

Q.3.     How can telecommunication such as the telephone, e-mail and the internet help?

Ans.     To buy and sell the goods stated

Locating supplies

Advertising goods / publicity

Arranging transport Finding orders Faster method Arrange delivery

Can communicate internationally.

In the expansion and modernization of industries

Credit ideas of increased funds by sales and advertising Obtaining machinery and building materials (best prices) Arranging transport

Expert advice

Easy communication with branches in other areas / countries

Contact with investors

Share dealing

Sites for education of workers.

Study Fig.9, which shows an advertisement for a big company.

Fig. 9

Q.4.    With reference to Fig.8, state four ways of contacting this company. Ans.    Telephone.


E-mail / web site / internet. Letter / address.


Q.5.    Which is the slowest way of contact? Ans.    This depend on the answer to Q.8.

Order of speed: e-mail – fax – telephone – letter – visit.

Q.6.    Why does the company advertise many different ways of contacting? Ans.    Easy.


Depend on distance.

To attract foreign interest. Visit is more personal.

Study Fig.10

Fig. 10

Q.7.    With reference to Fig.10, explain the importance of good communication to a business such as Cotton Fabrics International.

Ans.    For ordering supplies / linking to dealers

For advertising

For market research

For direct sales / customer contact

Speed of contact

Global reach / International exposure.

Information Technology

Information Technology is the use of hardware, software, services and supporting infrastructure to manage and and deliver information.  OR

It is the study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information. IT typically refers to equipment such as computers, data storage devices, networks and also communication devices.

Advantages of IT

More cheaper, quicker and efficient communication

Creation of new jobs Reduce human labor Globalize the business Minimise the cost.

Q.8.    What problems might there be in extending Information Technology (IT)

throughout Pakistan?

Ans.    Lack of electricity in remote areas

Lack of signal in remote areas / many people live in remote areas Lack of media infrastructure e.g. masts/WiFi/telephone lines/cables IT illiteracy

Lack of IT professionals

Frequent electrical/technical faults/breakdowns/loadshedding/damage from natural disasters

Decreases employment/number of office workers

Resistance from older generations/traditional/tribal societies Real or perceived threat of Internet on cultures/belief systems Risk of cyber attack

Capital intensive / high initial cost /lack of government finance / high cost of replacement

Technology has to be imported / expensive imports of technology / negative effect on balance of payments of import of technology

Population cannot afford bills/equipment.

T e r m s


A wharf is a landing stage to which barges and ships may be moored while loading and


2. Berth

A place where a ship or boat can stop and stay usually in a harbour.

3. Terminal

A building / set of building at an airport where air passengers arrive or leave.

4. Cargo

Goods carried in a ship or plane.

5. Ware House

A building where large quantities of goods are stored.

6. Container

A large metal or wooden box of a standard size in which goods are packed so that they

can easily be lifted on to a ship or train.

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