Educational Services: Believed that Muslims could not achieve this goal without education. He set up a Persian school at Muradabad in 1859 (was upgraded to the college in 1875 and to university level after his death). The educated Muslims of the early twentieth century were the product of this institution.
Aligarh Movement: 1. To build confidence between the British and the Muslims.
2. To persuade the Muslims to get scientific knowledge and learn English language.
3. To hold back the Muslims from the collective politics.
Effects: His main focus was on Aligarh to achieve his goals. Established Mohammad an Anglo Oriental School. It was a symbol of a broad movement affecting every phase of Muslim life. The actions taken by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan for the educational uplift of the Muslims left a far-reaching impact on the political, social, economic and religious aspects of the Muslims. The Aligarh movement showed new ways to press and opened the doors of economic prosperity for the Muslims of the sub-continent.
Urdu-Hindi Controversy: In 1867, Hindus demanded that Hindi should be made on official language of India in place of Urdu. The Hindus were against Urdu because it was the language of the Muslims.
Sir Syed felt sorry and he was now convinced that the Hindus would never be friend with the Muslims.
The Real Founder of Pakistan Sir Syed Ahmed Khan saw the attitude of Hindus towards the Muslims and felt sorry for it. He declared, “I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation.” Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations because their religion, culture, history and way of life are quite distinct from each other. In this way we can say this great hero and reformer, the real founder of Pakistan. Sir Syed passed away on 27 March 1898 but his work was continued by Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. Due to the Sir Syed’s efforts the Muslims emerged as a separate identity.
How did Sir Syed Ahmed Khan try to improve British-Muslim relations?
o Muslims were in poor condition without any jobs and were given harsh treatment.
o He wrote the Loyal Mohammadens of India to highlight the work of those who kept loyal to British
o He wrote the pamphlet, “The Causes of Indian Revolt,” which highlighted the wrong steps of British and the causes of War.
o He wrote “Tabyan-ul-Kalam” in which he brought down the similarities between the two religions in one place.
o He gave message to Muslims that they should adopt good habits of British but discard their bad ones and should cooperate with them to get benefits.
o He started a small movement in Aligarh.
o He was thus able to form the MAO College.
o Through this movement he tried to educate Muslims about Science and English language so that communication with British becomes easy.
o He tried to educate Muslims in the European Style.
Two Nation Theory
Introduction The Two Nation theory in its simplest way means the dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslim of the Sub Continent. These differences of outlook, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.
Religious Differences Islam preaches Tawheed (Oneness of Allah) Hinduism: based on the concept of multiple Gods.
Hindu Nationalism: The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.
Cultural Differences Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslim burred them. Hindus considered the ‘Mother Cow’ as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed ‘Sati’ while Muslims abhorred this tradition.
Economic Differences After 1857, the Muslim economic was crushed: were thrown out of Government services and their estates and properties were confiscated. Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.
Educational Differences Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.
Hindi Urdu Controversy 1867
Congress Attitude Congress claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.