Shah Wali Ullah
Biography: Born in Delhi in 1703. Father: Shah Abdul Rahim founded Madrassa Rahimya and also helped to compiled Fatawa-I-Alamgiri a book of Islamic legal text under the direct supervision of Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir. Education from Madrassa Rahimya for 12 years.
In 1724 he went to Arabia, he was greatly influenced by the teaching of Abu Tahir bin Ibrahim a well-known scholar of his time. He returned to Delhi in 1732.
o One of his major believe was that the terrible conditions of Muslims has occurred because of incomplete knowledge of Quran. So, it was necessary to make them accessible.
o Secondly, he realized that reforms cannot come from weak leadership of Dehli, they have to come from Community itself.
o Shah Wali Ullah did not liked the division of Shia and Sunni. He wanted to see them united, and focus on Major principles of Islam.
o Fourthly, he knew that Muslims should focus on Moral and Spiritual principles of Islam
o In Battle of Panipat, he was the one to Persuade Ahmed Shah Abdali to help in Battle, which was won. However, it was not enough to unite Muslims
o He wrote 51 Islamic Books in Persian and Arabic
o Translated Quran into Persian, later hi two sons (Shah Rafi, Shah Abdul Qadir) translated it
into Urdu to make it further accessible
o Deep/High knowledge Scholar, Shah Wali Ullah was role model for Muslims
o Tried his best to heal Shia, Sunni difference
o Madrassa Rahimya played a vital role later for the revival of true Islam
o First to find out the cause of decline as incomplete knowledge of Islam
o Translation of Quran made it accessible for huge population
o He believed in Unity as key to success
o Many future leaders were greatly influenced by him!
Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barailvi
Biography: Born near Lucknow in the town of Rae Bareli. Faithful follower of Shah Abdul Aziz.
In 1806 he enrolled in Madrassa of Shah Wali Ullah (Madrassa-I-Rahimiya). He graduated from Madrassa & joined a Pathan military force led by Amir Khan. He learnt about European weaponry including use of Artillery.
0. In 1821 he went for Haji & returned to Delhi in 1823 with a clear vision of Jihad He soon founded the “Jihad Movement” which was aimed at nothing less than the rejuvenation & restoration of Muslim power.
o Syed Ahmed was more a man of action, who was right and perfect as a leader
o He identified the evils must be ended to improve corrupted Muslims Society
o British ensured that Muslims have very little power, and Sikhs in Punjab were dominant.
Syed Ahmed wanted to restore Mughals Power and overthrow Sikhs from Punjab, so he found ‘Jihad Movement’.
o He went on Haj in 1821, before that he circulated his words; when he was back on 1823, he was ready to take action
o He soon found the cause, the Sikhs tynnaries in Punjab. Muslims were not allowed to do their religious practices.
o Jihad Movement was launched from Peshawar headquarters.
o To enlist men for this action; he went to Rajasthan, Baluchistan, Sindh and Afghanistan.
However, Afghans were not quite ready.
o 1826, he sent a message to Ranjit Singh (Sikh ruler in Punjab, that allow Muslims to worship their ALLAH (GOD) or face the mujahedeen.
o This lead to the first attack on Okara on 21st Dec, 1826. Shaheed Ahmed Barailvi led a force of 80,000. However, the major problem was that these peoples were from different communities. So, they were exploited by Sikhs calling them un-Islamic.
o Soon, Muslims agreed that Shaheed Ahmed Barailvi should become Imam, because his words have influence on Muslims.
o After the victory of Okara attack, he was preparing for attack on Attock, however, he faced another army of 35,000 Sikhs. What he didn’t knew was that a man of his army Yar Muhammad Khan was bribed. First, his servants tried to poison Shaheed Ahmed Barailvi. And then in battlefield Yar Muhammad deserted in Battlefield creating confusion and Chaos in ranks, which led to defeat of Shaheed Ahmed Barailvi. So they moved to Panjtar near Kashmir
o Although Yar Muhammad was killed his brother Sultan Muhammad waged the war against Shaheed Ahmed Barailvi.
o There was no option but to move, so Shaheed Ahmed Barailvi along with forces disappeared and hided into Hazara, protected by mountains. But local peoples told the way in, which led to Battle of Balakot (1831)
o Battle of Balakot: Mujahedeen fought bravely but they were heavily outnumbered. It was a surprise to them, the huge army of Sikhs. Along with Shaheed Ahmed Barailvi and brave Commander Shah Ismail 600 Mujahedeen were killed.
o Jihad Movement was able to unite Muslims
o One of first movement to get away from foreign rulers
o It indicated freedom of worship
o Battle of Balakot, decline of Jihad movement, which was later ended by British
o It defined culture and religion
o Regarded mostly as fore-runners of Pakistan Movement
Biography: Ever since the loss of independence, the Muslims of India were not only hovering in the domain of uncertainly but also many un-Islamic ideas were taking place in the minds of Muslims. It was at that time that some Muslim thinkers thought that unless the Muslim were brought back to the teachings of the Quran & Hades, would not be possible to save Muslims from their ruin. This shows that growth or Religion & national Movements in the subcontinent was not a spontaneous act. All these movements started not only in one part of Indo-Pakistan but throughout the country. One of the movements started by Haji Shariatullah in Bengal was Faraizi Movement’.
Haji Shariatullah was born in the district of Faridpur in the year 1781. After receiving his early education in his village he got an opportunity to perform Haji at the age of 18 He stayed there in Hejaz for 20 years & studied religion & Arabic. He returned to Bengal in 1806. During his stay in Arabia he was greatly impressed by doctrines of Sheikh Mohammad Abdul Wahab who had initiated the Wahabi Movement in Arabia.
o Miserable conditions of Muslims has led the country being Dar-ul-Harb (Area where non- Muslims rule). He believed in such areas Friday and EID prayer should not be offered.
o He believed that Muslims Community is no longer close enough to Islam. He wanted them to return to original purity of Islam, which in observation was called faraiz
o It supported the Idea of Jihad against the non-Muslims who were undermining the true principles of Islam
o Muslims were near poverty and they were given less opportunities for jobs. He wanted to restore their Pride
o Haji Shariat Ullah urged from his followers to adopt ‘Tauba’ as a manifestation of repentance for all the past sins & a pledge to lead a righteous & God-fearing life in future. His followers as already mentioned were known as Faraizi. His movement brought the Muslim peasants together against the cruel treatment by the Hindus Zamindars.
o Haji Sahib was greatly opposed by the Hindus who were disturbed by the unity of the Muslim peasants. They started harassing him by putting up false cases against him. Ultimately he was forced to leave Dhaka. He thus returned to his birthplace in Faridpur district & continued his religious preaching & fighting against the non-Islamic forces.
o He died in 1840
o His workings was later carried out by his Son, Mohsin-ud-Din:
He divided East Bengal into areas called circles, each had their own Khalifa, who was responsible for their wealth
Helped to oppose high taxes, he was opposed, but he went further and
declared a Jihad. He was arrested and after his death in 1860, Faraizi
o It encouraged de-moralized Muslims
o Brought a Spiritual revival and Hindu influences of Islamic practices were removed. o It was politically and economically important. Muslims rose against their harsh treatments and it is called to be seeding Pakistan Movements