Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
- He strengthened relations with China, former USSR, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and the Arab world.
- Bhutto visited China and China gave $110 loan to Pakistan.
- In 1972 military and economic aid came from China , 60 MiG fighters and many tanks.
- Bhutto visited USSR and it gave Pakistan 4.5 billion rupees to help establish steel mill, it further gave loans to start mineral and oil exploration.
- Bhutto also signed a Simla Agreement with India which cooled down the effects of 1971 war.
- He played active role in uniting Muslims of the world. He hosted the second OIC with collaboration with Saudi Arabia in Lahore in February 1974.
- This conference was a historic event that projected Pakistan as a leading Muslim country. He was trying to create an economic alliance between the Islamic countries.
- Bhutto in his attempt to have strong bilateral relations with Saudia and Bangladesh, renamed the major city of Lyallpur to Faisalabad in the honor of Shah Faisal (king of Saudi Arabia) and built Qaddafi cricket stadium in Lahore in the honor of Mamar Qaddafi of Bangladesh.
- He signed a number of bilateral agreements with the gulf countries for facilitating Pakistani workers to seek overseas employment.
- Millions of skilled and non-skilled workers obtained jobs in the Middle East.
- There was significant rise in foreign exchange for Pakistan.
- Bhutto withdrew from commonwealth as well as SEATO in 1972.
- Pakistan attended Non-aligned summit as observer in 1976.
- Bhutto created an Afghan cell in Pakistan foreign office.
- Sardar Daud visited Rawalpindi and established friendly ties.
- This constitution gave power more to the Prime Minister Rather than President such as emergency powers and appointment of chief justice
- This constitution formed a Bi-cameral form of Government with two houses of Parliament, Senate and National assembly.
- Islamic committee was also established which gave advice on legislation only.
- Basic Human rights were also guaranteed first time in the constitution of Pakistan , a list of Basic human rights was drew and made part of constitution.
- This constitution stated clearly that head of state must be Muslim.
- This constitution was accepted by all opposition parties and faced no opposition.
- This constitution is still practiced till this day with some amendments.
- Bhutto started a programme of nationalistion of industries.
- Sugar, cotton, vegetable oil and rice industries, together with the banking and insurance sectors were taken under government control.
- 70 industrial units were placed under Federal Ministry of Production.
- This helped control industrial output and channel investment into industrialization.
- This also helped to raise the workers living and working standards.
- This also allowed workers to set up unions.
- To distribute the wealth that had collected in few Industrial houses.
- Wealth was created to fund other government reforms.
- Inflation fell from 25% to just 6% in 1976, economic growth began.
- Bhutto reduced the ceiling of ownership of agricultural land from 1000 acres un-irrigated and 500 acres irrigated to 500 acres un-irrigated and 250 acres irrigated.
- Bhutto believed that mechanization would help increase production on small farms.
- However Bhutto’s reforms were undermined by cunning of landowners.
- These landowners transferred some of the landholdings to members of extended family members.
- Some landowners used personal influence to bribe officials to overlook transgressions of new law.
- Bhutto also introduced a reform known as security of tenure.
- This law gave tenants first right of purchase of land farmed by them and landlords could not sell land to a third party which might then evict the tenants.
- Landowners still used their influence to take land illegally from tenants and tenants were unable to stand up against the landowners
- Landowners also used to bribe the revenue officers to record land as “owner cultivated” although it was cultivated by tenants.
- Bhutto introduced educational reforms, Article 37 of government of constitution stated that it was the duty of Government to provide free education.
- Bhutto provided education for all including Women.
- He ensured that school curriculum met Pakistan’s social, economic and political needs.
- Although the literacy rate increased to some extent but these reforms faced a lot of opposition.
- Administration needed to coordinate the new reform did not exist
- The budget allocated by Government was only 13% for education.
- Many people in rural areas did not want to send their children to school because this would reduce the number of family members working on farm.
- Bhutto also introduced health reforms, he introduced RHCs for every 60,000 people and BHU for every 20,000 people. Training colleges for doctors and nurses set up. Once qualified doctors had to work first year wherever the government placed them.
- The sale of medicines under brand names was also banned .This measure reduced the costs of medicine dramatically.