Q. How successful has Pakistan been as a member of world organisations between 1947 and1988? Explain your answer. (J2003/P1/5c)
Pakistan has been taking keen and active interest in international organisations. Pakistan joined UNO in September 1947. In the beginning Pakistan remained involved in arguments about rights of Kashmiris and the solution for the Kashmir problem in which Pakistan was not successful. But later, Pakistan has been very active in the proceedings of the United Nations and the Pakistani delegations made effective contribution for the independence of many states, which were under colonial rule in 1950s particularly in case of Muslim states such as Palestine. Pakistan has contributed effectively and regularly to the United Nations peace-keeping missions in African and Asian countries. Pakistan was elected thrice as member of the Security Council. Pakistan was effective in getting resolutions passed in General Assembly asking for withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and always supported the Palestinian and Arab cause. Chaudhry Zafarullah Khan of Pakistan worked as a judge of international Court of Justice for a number of years. Thus, on the whole Pakistan has been a successful member of UNO.
Pakistan was far more enthusiastic about CENTO because other member states were mostly Muslim. Pakistan regularly tried to persuade the other members to establish a unified command for CENTO. However, despite regular meetings, the group never developed a permanent structure or a system for raising troops for mutual defence. The USA supported CENTO, but never actually joined. Thus by 1979 the organisation had quietly dissolved. In September 1954, Pakistan joined SEATO, but the decision faced opposition from within the Pakistan government and so the treaty was not ratified until 1955. The treaty also applied to only against the communist aggression, thus Pakistan was to receive no help for its wars with India. Pakistan had also hoped for a permanent military force to protect all member countries against any attack – it was, however, not accepted. It did not support Pakistan during 1965 and 1971 wars. Finally Bhutto withdrew from the organisation in 1972 after the Bangladesh Crisis. Therefore, the membership of SEATO and CENTO has not been successful on part of Pakistan.
Since the formation of OIC, Pakistan had been an active member of it and had been actively participating in the activities of OIC aimed at Islamic unity, solidarity and stability. Pakistan has also taken part in all summits and conferences held under the banner of OIC. Pakistan also contributed her due share in all respects for the achievement of its objectives. It had raised voice for the Palestinian Cause. Sharif-udin-Pirzada, the former minister of Pakistan, have been the Secretary-General of OIC. The summit showed that Pakistan had many friends all over the Muslim world. One result was that Pak was receiving aid from fellow Islamic countries, like Iran (giving loans totalling $730 million). Thus Pakistan also remained a prominent member of OIC.
On 21st July 1964, largely as a result of the work of Ayub Khan, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan set up the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD). This encouraged the three countries to develop closer trade links and help each other with industrial projects, such as setting up mills, and factories.
In case of Canal Water Dispute, the UN played a significant role when the President of the World Bank made a recommendation that it should provide financial and technical support to resolve the disagreement. This proposal formed the basis of the Indus Water Treaty signed in September 1959. The World Bank also provided finance to help establish hydro-electricity and soil reclamation programmes which have been vital for the stimulation of Pakistan’s economy and industries.
Pakistan has been an active member of NAM organization (The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide) and took active part in its deliberations.
Pakistan has been an effective member of Common-wealth except during the 1972-1989. Pakistan has always stood for justice, equality, peace, security and rights of the people.
On the whole Pakistan has been quite successful as a member of world organisations.
Pakistan joined the UN on September 30, 1947, after its independence and has been an active participant in the UN and its specialized agencies and other bodies, as well as in various specialized UN conferences. In 1993 Pakistan was elected to a two-year term on the UN Security Council, In addition, Pakistani nationals have contributed their skills within the UN itself. For example, in 1987, Nafis Sadik, a Pakistani woman physician, became executive director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) with the rank of undersecretary general. Pakistan has also been the recipient of assistance from UN development organizations, including the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in a variety of fields such as agriculture, water and sanitation, national planning, and human development. The UNDP, for example, allocated more than US$87 million for assistance to Pakistan for the 1992-96 program period. Pakistan maintains a permanent mission to the UN, which is currently headed by Ambassador Abdullah Hussain Haroon in New York. There is a second mission based at the UNO office in Geneva, Switzerland. The Pakistani military has played a key role in the UN’s peacekeeping programme in different parts of the world, most prominently in Somalia, Sierra Leone, Bosnia, Congo and Liberia. The UN continues to remain a keen observer of the Kashmir conflict between Pakistan and India, centering on the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. Since the transfer of power to both countries in 1947 of the divided territory, the UN has played an extensive role in regulating and monitoring the dispute.
Pakistan’s participation in other organizations, including SAARC and the ECO, reflect its desire to be an influential player in the geographic region of which it is a part. In addition, Pakistan has played a leading role in the OIC, and President Zia was instrumental in revitalizing the OIC as a forum for periodic meetings of the heads of Islamic states. Pakistan thus appears firmly committed to the utility of broad-based international cooperation.
The idea of regional organization for cooperation in the South Asia was put in forward by then Bangladesh President Zia-ur- Rahman in November, 1980. The objective was to form an association on the lines of EEC or ASEAN. SAARC was formed in December, 1985 at Dhaka (Bangladesh). Katmandu is the headquarter of SAARC members. Since the Association inception, Pakistan has been a supporter of SAARC objectives and has remained an active player on the SAARC platform. It has contributed meaningfully to the establishment, institutionalization and progress of the association. Pakistan supports a step by step approach for enhancing cooperation and emphasized the need for the better coordination of programmes and consolidation of the progress made so far. Pakistan has a privilege to be host to SAARC Regional Center for Human Resources Development, which has been established in Islamabad in 1998. The headquarters of SAARC Chambers of Commerce and industry is located at Islamabad. Pakistan proposed the establishment of a Group of Eminent Persons to undertake comprehensive appraisal of SAARC at the Male Summit in 1997.
ECO a territorial organization was established in 1985. In the beginning it was consisted of Turkey, Iran and Pakistan. In November, seven more Muslim countries got the membership of ECO. Now this organization consist of ten countries these are Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkman, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan to promote trade by curtailing the trade restrictions. Cooperation in industrial fields. Cooperation in communication, science and other fields. To provide insurance facilities to industrial and business units by establishing an insurance firm. provide the facilities of tourism to the citizens of member countries. To develop means of communication on modern lines construction of railway lines and roads. Pakistan’s potential in telecommunication, agriculture, food, industry, trade and many other sectors made it significant as it can play its role for the betterment of rest of the member nations by providing them with assistance financially and technically both. ECO currently is engaged in energy crisis resolution and meetings are being held in Tehran. And by resolving this problem all the members will facilitated by it specially Pakistan. Because besides the potentiality of the country in many a sectors still they are not operating at an efficient level which is required according to the current need of the scenario. Pakistan urged the members of the ECO to expedite implementation of past agreements for trade liberalization and bring down tariff and non-tariff barriers.
OIC is an International Organization consisting of 51 member’s states. The organization attempts to be the collective voice of the Muslim World (Ummah). Leaders of Muslim Nations met in Rabat to established OIC on 25 September, 1969. To safeguard the interest and ensure the progress and well-being of Muslims. To preserve Islamic, social and economic values. To promote solidarity amongst members state. Increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific and political areas. Uphold international peace and security and advanced education, particularly in the fields of science and technology. The role of Pakistan in OIC is as follows. Pakistan wants to unite all the Muslims countries and made good relation with Islamic world. Pakistan was also very active in holding the Islamic Summit Conference. Pakistan was also the member of the committee form to stop the Iraq-Iran war in 1979. Pakistan helped the Muhajirs from Afghanistan during Russian invasion of Afghanistan. Pakistan rejected to accept Israel for the support of Palestinian people.
The founders of ASEAN wanted to bring together all the countries of Southeast Asia and getting them to cooperate in securing the regions peace, stability and development. The founder of ASEAN are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The association was established in 1967. To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region. To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economics social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.
AM emerged during the 1960s in the context of bi-polar world with the USA leading the free world on the one hand and Soviet Union at the head of coalition of revolutionary communist countries. To continue the collective efforts for the removal of legacies such as foreign occupation, foreign military bases, the use or threat of use of force, pressure, interference in internal affairs and sanctions. Contribute in the past to the cause of freedom and liberty, struggled against colonialism and discrimination. Pakistan plays an important role in the deliberation of NAM and is regarded as one of its key members. In the view of unresolved Kashmir issue, it has been the Pakistan efforts that the NAM decisions reflection emphasis on peaceful settlement of dispute. Pakistan fully supported NAM principle on the issue of global nuclear disarmament. On the platform of NAM Pakistan, however, endorses the call for the terrorism.