Allama Muhammad Iqbal
Biography: Born on 1877 in Sialkot. He got his ‘Doctorate in Philosophy’ in Munich University. Masters from Govt. College, Lahore. He practiced law in England and philosophy in Cambridge. He was a poet taking Inspirations from Quran. 1938, he was buried in Badshahi Mosque.
o He was totally against British, so he was opposed. He thought that British and Hindus were equally against Muslims.
o He believed in Sovereign homeland.
o He was the first to dream of a separate place for Muslims where they can live with pure Islamic values
o No doubt he was a great poet. His poetry was not only hopeful but encouraging. He earned British awards for his poetry. It was called as ‘something awaken Muslims’. He was also called ‘The Philosopher poet.
o Allama Iqbal sometimes is called ‘Architect of Pakistan’
o 1926, he was elected member for Punjab Assembly.
o 1927, he was elected as General Secretary
o 1930, Allahabad Address
Choudhry Rehmat Ali
Biography: He was born in Hoshiyarpur, Punjab in 1879. Took his basic Education from Jalandhar and B.A from Govt. College. He joined Islamia College Lahore in 1918. He was living and practicing law in Lahore. After win of the case ‘Nawabs of Mazari’ he went to Cambridge University. In 1930 he went to England where earned the degrees of M.A. Jinnah and Bar at Law from Cambridge University and Dublin University.
Now or Never: He suggested for the separate homeland long before anyone thought of partition. He suggested the name Pakistan for the new nation. His views were different from Jinnah and Iqbal at that time.
1933, Chaudhry Rehmat Ali founded the ‘Pakistan Movement’. He Issued Pamphlet ‘Now or Never’ in that pamphlet he stated Muslims should have their own homeland called ‘Pakistan’. Muslim states comprising the Punjab. N.W.F.P, Kashmir, Sindh, Baluchistan. ‘Pakistan’ stands for, P for Punjab, A for Afghania, K for Kashmir, S for Sindh and Tan for Baluchistan.
Contribution in Pakistan Movement:
o In 1930 Round Table Conference were held in London to discuss possible political agreement between Hindus, Muslims and British. Chaudhry Rehmat Ali met the Muslim’s leaders including M.A. Jinnah and tried to convince them to give the idea of Indian federation and focus their energies to form a separate homeland for the Muslims. But at this stage M.A. Jinnah and other leaders were unconvinced so the proposals of Chaudhry Rehmat Ali was rejected
o He was rightly awarded when in 1940 ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE adopted his central demand for a separate homeland and name ‘Pakistan’. He was one of those leaders who lived to see the establishment of Pakistan. But he did not agree with the final map of Pakistan. His contribution also never appreciated officially. He visited Pakistan in 1948 and live in Lahore for some time and left for England. He died in Cambridge on 3rd Feb, 1951.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
o In 1906 Jinnah became the member of Imperial legislative Council and Congress. In 1913 he joined All India Muslim league.
o 1916, Jinnah was one of the leading figure in Indian politics. He was respected & admired by both Hindus and Muslims & called as the ‘Ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity’. In 1916 Lucknow pact was signed between Muslims League & Congress mainly because of the efforts of M.A. Jinnah.
o Jinnah resigned from the imperial legislative Council in 1919 in protest at the passing of ‘Rowlatt Act’. Because of the rising influence of Gandhi, Congress decided to back out of the separate electorate accepted in 1916 & calling of the Non-cooperation movement in 1920. In 1920 Jinnah resigned from Congress protesting against the policies of Gandhi.
o In 1927 Simon Commission arrives in India since the commission had no Indian member so the
o Muslims League (ML) under the leadership of M.A. Jinnah decided to boycott it. In 1928 when Nehru report was passed Jinnah tried to reach a compromise on the issue of separate electorate but INC refused to accept the proposals of Jinnah. After that Jinnah abounded the efforts of Hindu Muslim reconciliation. 1929, his famous four points showed up!
o In 1931 & 32 Jinnah attended the 1st & 2nd session of the RTC in London, where he firmly talked about the protection of minority’s right in India. He stayed in England but after numerous requests of Allama Iqbal & Liaquat Ali Khan he returned as Muslims league president (elected).
o In the provincial election of 1936-37 Muslims League did not perform well as it had hoped. So immediately after the elections of 1936-37 the Muslims League launched the program of mass contact under the leadership of M.A. Jinnah. The labor born fruit and Muslim league membership rose from ten thousand to hundred thousand.
o With the outbreak of 2nd World war, Congress directed its minister to resign from their posts. Following the resignation of Congress’s minister Quaid asked all Muslims to celebrate ‘The Day of Deliverance’ in Dec 1939.
o On 23rd March 1940, a historic session of AIML was held under the leadership of Quaid-e- Azam. During the session a resolution was passed demanding the establishment to separate sovereign & independent state for the Muslims of India.
In elections 1945-46, the success of ML was by efforts of Jinnah. Now ML demands were making some ground… and finally under the leadership of Quaid and Pakistan came in to existence in 14th August 1947. It was M.A Jinnah who led the Pakistan Movement harmlessly
Quaid-e-Azam as Governor General
On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General.
o Formation of Federal Cabinet As soon as the Quaid-e-Azam took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly. Liaquat Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister. Which took oath on 15 August 1947.
o Members of the Cabinet 1. Sardar Abdul Rab Nisther (Transports) 2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture) 3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education 4. I.I Chundrigar (Industry) 5. Ghulam Mohammad (Finance) 6. Jogander Nath Mandal (Law) 7. Sir Zafar Ullah Khan Qadyani (Affair)
o Constitutional Problems Govt. Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state.
o Establishment of Capital Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan.
o Provincial Government Quaid-e-Azam elected Chief Minister and Governor.
o Establishment of Administrative Head Quarters For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhry Mohammad Ayub was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Headquarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up.
o Attention to Foreign Affairs Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-Azam paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy.
o Membership of UNO After independence, Quaid-e-Azam paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO). On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO.
o Implementation of Education Policy Education sector also needed attention at the time of independence. For this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in 1947. He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and national spirit. He made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-Azam did a lot to improve education policy of the country.
o In the Service of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption.
o First Cabinet of Pakistan First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected. He took of it.