Q: Why did Pakistan join United Nations? 
Ans: United Nations was founded after World War II. Pakistan joined the UNO in September 1947. There were several reasons for this:
Most significantly, as a new-born independent country, Pakistan was anxious to be recognised as an independent country in the world. Moreover, since India was already a member of UNO even before 1947, Pakistan was also keen to get its membership. As a sovereign state, it was important for Pakistan to join UNO to make its identity accepted by the world.
Furthermore, just after the partition Pakistan was faced with the problem of the accession of the states of Junagarh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. It was vital for Pakistan to seek the membership in order to present her case before the Security Council effectively. Furthermore, on 1st April 1948, India had shut off the water supplies to Pakistan (Canal Water Dispute). So to find a solutions to such problems, Pakistan joined UNO. UNO supported Pakistan by helping it draw a treaty with India (Indus Water Treaty, 1960) with the help of World Bank.
Last but not the least, Pakistan was keen to play its role in supporting the independence struggle of several Asian and African countries. So to play its role as a peaceful nation against colonization, racial discrimination, territorial and regional aggression, Pakistan joined the UNO in 1947.
Q: Why has Pakistan supported the Palestinian cause? 
Ans: Pakistan has been supporting Palestinian cause for three important reasons.
Most significantly, even before the partition, Muslims of the subcontinent had supported the cause of Palestinians and had rendered political, moral and material support to them. The spirit of Islamic brotherhood continued even after the partition. The torching of Al-Aqsa Mosque in 1969 by Jews added fuel to the fire.
Furthermore, one of the cornerstones of Pakistan’s foreign policy was the support of suppressed nations. Pakistan has always been against oppression, colonialism, discrimination and had supported the right of self-determination of every nation. Pakistan has always condemned Israel and supported the Palestinians on all international forums.
In addition to that, Pakistan has not recognised Israel. Ever since the emergence of Israel state in 1948, Pakistan has opposed the unjust and unfair policy of western powers who arranged and supported the settlement of Jews from all parts of the world or unlawfully occupied Arab lands. Pakistan has raised on the forum of OIC for the rights of Palestinian people and withdrawal of Israeli forces from the occupied territories.
Q: Why did Pakistan leave SEATO in 1972? 
Ans: Pakistan had joined SEATO in 1954. But due to certain reasons Pakistan was forced to withdraw itself from SEATO.
Pakistan signed the treaty, but the United States warned that the Pact applied only to communist aggression so Pakistan could not hope to use treaty if attacked by India. The decision of the Foreign Minister, Zafarullah Khan, to sign the treaty was contested by the Pakistan government, and it was not until January 1955 that government of Pakistan agreed to ratify the treaty. Therefore weaknesses were apparent.
Moreover, Pakistan had tried to secure further aid as a result of its membership of SEATO and pushed for a permanent military force to be established to protect all member states. Neither of these moves was successful, as the other members refused to agree.
Pakistan’s disenchantment with the treaty increased when SEATO did not support Pakistan in either of its wars with India (1965 and 1971 wars). It was the Bangladesh crisis in 1971 which finally led Bhutto to declare the withdrawal of Pakistan from SEATO in 1972. Therefore, due to these reasons, Pakistan left SEATO in 1972.
Q: How successful had Pakistan been as a member of world organisations between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. 
Ans: Pakistan has been taking keen and active interest in international organisations. Pakistan joined UNO in September 1947. In the beginning Pakistan remained involved in arguments about rights of Kashmiris and the solution for the Kashmir problem in which Pakistan was not successful.
But later, Pakistan has been very active in the proceedings of the United Nations and the Pakistani delegations made effective contribution for the independence of many states, which were under colonial rule in 1950s particularly in case of Muslim states such as Palestine. Pakistan has contributed effectively and regularly to the United Nations peace-keeping missions in African and Asian countries. Pakistan was elected thrice as member of the Security Council. Pakistan was effective in getting resolutions passed in General Assembly asking for withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and always supported the Palestinian and Arab cause. Chaudhry Zafarullah Khan of Pakistan worked as a judge of international Court of Justice for a number of years. Thus, on the whole Pakistan has been a successful member of UNO.
Pakistan was far more enthusiastic about CENTO because other member states were mostly Muslim. Pakistan regularly tried to persuade the other members to establish a unified command for CENTO. However, despite regular meetings, the group never developed a permanent structure or a system for raising troops for mutual defence. The USA supported CENTO, but never actually joined. Thus by 1979 the organisation had quietly dissolved. In September 1954, Pakistan joined SEATO, but the decision faced opposition from within the Pakistan government and so the treaty was not ratified until 1955. The treaty also applied to only against the communist aggression, thus Pakistan was to receive no help for its wars with India. Pakistan had also hoped for a permanent military force to protect all member countries against any attack – it was, however, not accepted. It did not support Pakistan during 1965 and 1971 wars. Finally Bhutto withdrew from the organisation in 1972 after the Bangladesh Crisis. Therefore, the membership of SEATO and CENTO has not been successful on part of Pakistan.
Since the foundation of OIC, Pakistan had been an active member of it and had been actively participating in the activities of OIC aimed at Islamic unity, solidarity and stability. Pakistan has also taken part in all summits and conferences held under the banner of OIC. Pakistan also contributed her due share in all respects for the achievement of its objectives. It had raised voice for the Palestinian Cause. Sharif-udin-Pirzada, the former minister of Pakistan, have been the Secretary-General of OIC. The summit showed that Pakistan had many friends all over the Muslim world. One result was that Pak was receiving aid from fellow Islamic countries, like Iran (giving loans totalling $730 million). Thus Pakistan also remained a prominent member of OIC.
On 21st July 1964, largely as a result of the work of Ayub Khan, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan set up the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD). This encouraged the three countries to develop closer trade links and help each other with industrial projects, such as setting up mills, and factories.
In case of Canal Water Dispute, the UN played a significant role when the President of the World Bank made a recommendation that it should provide financial and technical support to resolve the disagreement. This proposal formed the basis of the Indus Water Treaty signed in September 1959. The World Bank also provided finance to help establish hydro-electricity and soil reclamation programmes which have been vital for the stimulation of Pakistan’s economy and industries.
Pakistan has been an active member of NAM organisation and took active part in its deliberations. Pakistan has been an effective member of Common wealth except during the 1972-1989. Pakistan has always stood for justice, equality, peace, security and rights of the people.
On the whole Pakistan has been quite successful as a member of world organisations.
Q: How successful were Pak-USA relations since 1947 to 1999? Explain your answer.
Ans: After partition in 1947, Pakistan decided to ally itself with USA. But at this time, USA was working towards an anti-communist alliance with India, so it was sometime before they embraced an alliance with Pakistan with any enthusiasm. During independence struggle, the America had often talked of need of unity between Muslims and Hindus, but Muslims wanted a separate homeland, so they were disturbed by this. It also took several years before USA sent an ambassador to Pakistan.
Liaqat Ali khan was frustrated by coolness of Americans towards an alliance with Pakistan. He accepted the offer to visit Soviet Union in 1949. He was successful (by this visit) in forcing Americans into closer alliance. An offer came immediately to visit USA and Liaqat Ali Khan made his visit in 1950. He made arrangements for a Pakistan Embassy to be built in USA. India was reluctant to sign an anti-communist alliance in return for military and economic aid. Agreement was signed and American aid began to flow into Pakistan. The relations became warm and good.
In 1954, Pakistan and USA signed Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement. In same year SEATO was set up. Pakistan also joined, but the decision faced opposition from within the govt. so the treaty was ratified until 1955. But Pakistan soon realised that its membership was of little importance as treaty only applied to help against communist aggression. So Pakistan was received no support in its wars against India. In 1972, Bhutto withdrew Pakistan from the organisation. In 1955, Baghdad pact was also signed which was renamed ‘The Central Asian Treaty Organisation’ [CENTO] after Iraq left in 1959 because of a revolution. However, despite regular meetings, the group never developed a permanent structure or a system for raising troops for mutual defence. USA supported it, but never actually joined. To sum up, these treaties explain why Pakistan was called the ‘most allied ally’ of USA in 1950s.
However, during 1960s and 1970s relations were often strained. In 1962, China went to a war with India. As China was communist so USA provided military aid to help India fight. Pakistan was angered over this because USA did not consult Pakistan before providing aid. In 1962, Ayub Khan visited China and in 1965 he visited Soviet Union. As both were communist, so these visits displeased USA. Pakistan was not provided any help or special aid during its wars with India (in 1965 and 1971) by USA. Although Ayub displeased USA by visiting communist countries, he is known as architect of good relations with USA. He allowed them to build air bases in Pakistan and remained loyal to USA even during the embarrassing ‘U2 Affair’. So relations were good. But when he was deposed and replaced by Bhutto, Americans became concerned as he was not as pro-American as his predecessors and relations deteriorated. Bhutto even accused Americans of organising opposition against him in 1977. When Zia came, relations reached rock bottom as Americans did not approve of military regimes. In 1979 US Embassy in Islamabad was burned. USA accused Zia of complicity in the attack. It also recalled many of its senior officials and all aid programmes were cancelled.
However, during same year, situation changed overnight when soviets attacked Afghanistan. USA began to provide military and economic aid to Pakistan to help it buy modern US weapons and also to support Afghan rebels. Relations became very good and warm. Pakistan enjoyed rapid economic development and became leading military nation in the region. But when peace agreements was signed in 1988, Pak lost its strategic importance to USA. Aid was reduced dramatically which became a big problem for new govt. of Benazir Bhutto. Americans were previously concerned about Pakistan’s nuclear programme. Bhutto had to work to maintain the relationship with the USA as American officials were not convinced that Pakistan had no nuclear weapons. In 1985 the Pressler Amendment had said that the USA could only give aid to a country after American President had declared that country had no nuclear weapons and was not developing them. After Afghan crisis was over, President Bush refused to declare that this was the case with Pakistan and he blocked aid to country. He also stopped sale of 28 F-16 fighter jets which Pak had ordered (and paid for). Pakistan complained bitterly that the Pressler Amendment seems to apply only to Pakistan, not India and was not fair. President Clinton, wanting to restore relations b/w two countries, agreed that Pressler Amendment had led to unfair treatment and suggested that if Pakistan stopped producing Weapon grade Uranium he would agree to sale of F-16s.
In 1995, Defence secretary, William Perry, visited Pakistan and declared that Pressler Amendment had been a mistake. In 1996, Brown amendment authorised the US govt. to reimburse Pak for F-16 payments and provide $388 million in military equipment. The thaw in the relations was further highlighted when First Lady Hillary Clinton and her daughter, Chelsa, visited Pakistan in 1996. Thus, relations b/w two varied in the period, but were generally good.
However, it could be said that they were not successful because USA would probably have preferred to have allied with India and only had good relations with Pak when events meant it was necessary.
Q: Why couldn’t Pakistan outperform in 1965 and 1971 wars? 
Ans: In 1965, Pakistan had never expected a full scale war with India over Kashmir, and therefore the Lahore was caught unprepared. One reason for this problem was that India was more determined than Pakistan had realised. Another major reason was that during the war, the USA and Britain had both placed an embargo on selling weapons to the two combatants. As Pakistan was dependent on the West for parts to service its military equipment, it was hit harder than India.
By 1971 the balance of military power had definitely tilted in favour of India. It had a stronger economy and larger population and was able to develop an army considerably larger than Pakistan could put in the field. India could also rely on support from Soviet Union after signing the treaty of Peace, Friendship and Commerce in August 1971. Whereas Pakistan was not having any such support from any of its Allies.
Moreover, Pakistan faced challenges in 1971, as India took advantage of civil war in East Pakistan. The Indian army attacked East Pakistan. The ensuing was led to the downfall of Decca and the subsequent surrender of Pakistani forces with a larger number of Pakistani soldiers being taken as prisoners by India. Thus, because of these reasons Pakistan lost 1965 and 1971 wars.
Q: What was the Kargil Conflict? 
Ans: In April 1999, Muslim Kashmiri guerrillas crossed the Line of Control and captured the Indian occupied towns of Kargil and Drass. The Pakistan govt. denied any involvement. In May, India launched a counter-attack during which it fired over 250,000 shells and rockets. Two of its aircrafts crossed into Pakistani air space and one was shot down. During May and June 1999, Pakistani forces were pushed back and eventually Sharif was persuaded by US President Clinton to withdraw all Pakistan forces from Indian held territory behind the Line of Control. The Kargil conflict proved to be a major blow to Pakistan-India relations.
Q: How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with India between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer.
Ans: Given the historical background to partition, the dispute over assets and Kashmir conflict, it is perhaps not surprising that India-Pakistan relations have rarely been good.
The relations between the two states have mainly been plagued by failure. Since partition, the main thorn between the good relations have been the Kashmir issue. Kashmir has been the main bone of contention between the two over which the two sides had fought various wars. In 1948, there was a war because of the forceful accession of Hindu Maharaja to India. UNO ordered a cease-fire, promising to hold plebiscite, but over till now, no such plebiscite has been organised. In addition, in 1965, there was another war on the same issue, resulting from the Pakistani tries to free Kashmir by force as after the Indo-China war, the Pakistan army had believed that these events showed that Indians had ‘no stomach’ for a fight. Thus, began to think in terms of military solution to the Kashmir dispute. The Indians, however, dropped their objections to western military aid and began a vigorous rearmament campaign after the humiliating defeat they suffered at the hands of Chinese. The stage was now set for a military showdown between India and Pakistan.
The two sides also went to a war in 1971 over Bangladesh-East-Pakistan Crisis. India had the golden chance to cut down it rivals. They availed the opportunity and separated the two wings of its enemy. India also had grievances over Pakistan’s involvement in Defence Pact with USA, but USA confirmed India that this was only against any communist aggression.
Pakistan was shocked when India tested its nuclear device in Rajasthan in 1974. As Pakistan’s relations with India further deteriorated, both countries stepped up their nuclear development programmes. In May 1998, India shocked the world by testing five nuclear devices. Just a few weeks later, Pakistan detonated its own nuclear devices in Ras Koh hills. This initiated the nuclear arms race between the two states which continues to this date.
In early 1980s, India accused Pakistan in helping separatist elements of Sikhs who were demanding a separate homeland, Khalistan, for Sikhs. Pakistan rejected this allegation. Later on, the aftermath of the assassination of Indira Gandhi had adverse effects on relations with India. Rajiv, son of Indira Gandhi, again accused Pakistan for his mother’s killing. Both sides were almost on a brink of an undeclared war. India started ‘exercises’ near borders of Pakistan, but it was a great master stroke of Zia which saved the two countries from war.
The Kargil conflict in 1999, further pumped up the Indo-Pak hostility. In April 1999, Muslims Kashmiri guerrillas crossed the Line of Control and captured the Indian occupied towns of Kargil and Drass. The Pak govt., however, denied any involvement. In May, India launched a counter-attack during which it fired over 250,000 shells and rockets. Two of its aircrafts also crossed into Pakistan air space and one was shot down. The Kargil conflict was a major blow to Pakistan-India relations.
Other problems like division of assets and Canal Water Dispute also contributed to the poor relations b/w the two.
On the contrary, there were also some successes in the relations. In April 1950, there was a formal agreement, called the ‘Minorities Agreement’, signed between Liaqat Ali Khan and Nehru. According to the agreement, both governments were responsible to protect the religious minorities in their states and to encourage them to stay on rather than to migrate. Moreover, another agreement had also been reached in December 1948 which allowed for a neutral tribunal to demarcate the exact borders between East Bengal and Assam.
The Tashkent agreement of 1966 after 1965 war helped the two states to agree to resolve disputes peacefully. The Simla Agreement was also a major step in developing good ties between the two states. India agreed to free 90,000 war prisoners of Pakistan and Pakistan agreed to talk over Kashmir issue bilaterally and not going to the world community. The Indus water treaty, 1960, also helped in establishment of good relations.
Thus the two states have had very poor relations since 1947. Pakistan had remained unsuccessful in having good ties with India. This is due to mainly Kashmir issue which they have failed to resolve. The nuclear arms race had made it nuclear flash point in the world.
Q: How successful was Pakistan’s relationship with the USSR between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. 
Ans: Relations between Pakistan and USSR have undergone many ups and downs between 1947 and 1999. Russia has always tried to have sincere relations with Pakistan but Pakistani leaders never thought in this context.
From 1947 to 1950, Russia had remained neutral in her relations with Pakistan. In 1950, USSR invited Liaqat Ali Khan to visit Moscow. However, at the same time USA invited him to visit Washington. Liaqat Ali Khan chose to go to Washington. This, clearly, snubbed the Soviet Union and in turn relations between the two suffered for some time. By 1950, the Soviet Union started to back over with India over the Kashmir issue. When Pakistan joined SEATO and CENTO in the mid-1950s, the Soviet Union took this as a firm declaration in favour of the USA. This greatly worsened the relations between USSR and Pakistan. In 1955, USSR officially backed India over the Kashmir problem and promised whole-hearted support; moreover, USSR also began to Press Pakistan over the Afghan claims in ‘Pakhtoonistan’.
However, Soviet Union always desired to have good relations with Pakistan. In 1956, it offered Pak aid together with a promise to build a steel mill, if only Pak broke off its alliance with USA. Pakistan refused to do so. The relations reached the rock bottom when in May, 1960, an American Spy Plane (U2) flew from an American base near Peshawar and was shot down while flying over Russia. Russia gave a serious warning to Pakistan.
On the contrary, the relations after 1960s greatly elevated. In 1961, the soviets, as a gesture of goodwill, agreed to begin exploring for oil in Pakistan. When India accepted help from USA in its war with China, the effect was to drive Pakistan and the USSR closer together. When China began to give Pak aid in 1963, the soviets decided to take even more decisive steps to ally with Pakistan. In 1963, it loaned Pakistan £11 million and shifted from its previous inclination towards India over Kashmir to neutral stance.
The relations sky-rocketed when Ayub Khan paid an official visit to Soviet Union and further agreements on trade and oil exploration were reached. After the Pakistan-India was of 1965, the Tashkent Agreement took place through the efforts of Russian president.
Relations, however, were at a very low ebb during 1969-71 because Pakistanis effort to bring USA and China closer greatly annoyed USSR. In 1971 Russia fully supported India with military aid and Pakistan lost its East Wing.
The Period of 1972-77 was a period of good relations because Z. A. Bhutto visited Russia in 1972. Bhutto had no liking for USA. Russia had become neutral on Kashmir issue and Russia helped Pak in setting up a steel mill at Karachi which has been a great asset to Pakistan – thanks to the good relations between the two.
However, the improved relations were short-lived. The soviet occupation of Afghanistan in 1979 caused an open rift when Pakistan accepted American aid to support the mujahidin rebels. Although Zia visited Moscow in 1984 for the funeral of Andropov, he got a cold reception. Later that year, the Soviet Union, which also disapproved of Pak’s nuclear programme began bombing raids on Pakistan. Hostile relations continued until 1988, when the soviets finally withdrew from Afghanistan.
Several high levels of exchanges of trips have taken place between the two sides since 1991. Russian foreign minister in April, 1993, and first Russian deputy foreign minister in 1994 visited Pakistan. A broad range of bilateral issues were discussed during these visits. Russia had moved away from its unconditional support to India on all issues. Pak and Russia cooperated in UN sponsored talks at Tajikistan. The Russian president extended the invitation to Pak’s Prime Minister to visit Moscow. In April 1998, Pak PM visited Moscow. During this visit many important bilateral issues were signed.
On the whole, Pakistan was not successful in keeping good relations with USSR because periods of improved relations were short lived.